For cookie, URL, and real-time server-to-server (S2S) destinations, it is about one hour given the data volume, and infrastructure today. For batch S2S destinations, it would be in effect in the next outbound batch after the data propagates through the system.
Batch file processing and delivery takes place once per day, at approximately 14:00 UTC. Keep in mind that processing and delivery are affected by the total number and size of these files - See https://marketing.adobe.com/resources/help/en_US/aam/c_reporting_file_transfer_timeframe.html
For more information around Batch outbound data transfers, please refer to https://marketing.adobe.com/resources/help/en_US/aam/c_outbound_intro.html