A footnote consists of two linked parts: the footnote reference number that appears in text, and the footnote text that appears at the bottom of the column. You can create footnotes or import them from Word or RTF documents. Footnotes are automatically numbered as they are added to a document. Numbering restarts in each story. You can control the numbering style, appearance, and layout of footnotes. You cannot add footnotes to footnote text.
The width of the footnote text is based on the width of the column containing the footnote reference marker. Footnotes cannot space columns in a text frame.
Place the insertion point where you want the footnote reference number to appear.
Choose Type > Insert Footnote.
Type the footnote text.
A. Reference number B. Footnote text
As you type in Layout view, the footnote area expands while the text frame remains the same size. The footnote area continues to expand upward until it reaches the line with the footnote reference. At that point, the footnote is split to the next page, if possible. If the footnote cannot be split, and if more text is added than can fit in the footnote area, the line containing the footnote reference is moved to the next page, or an overset icon appears. In such a case, you should considering changing the text formatting.
When the insertion point is in a footnote, you can choose Type > Go To Footnote Reference to return to where you were typing. If you use this option frequently, consider creating a keyboard shortcut.
Change footnote numbering and layout
Changes you make to footnote numbering and layout affect existing footnotes and all new ones.
In InCopy, change footnote numbering and layout options only for standalone documents. The InDesign document’s footnote settings will override any changes you make to a linked (managed) file in InCopy.
Choose Type > Document Footnote Options.
In the Numbering And Formatting tab, select options that determine the numbering scheme and formatting appearance of the reference number and footnote text.
Click the Layout tab, and select options that control the look of the footnote section on the page.
Footnote numbering and formatting options
The following options appear in the Numbering And Formatting section of the Footnote Options dialog box:
Choose the numbering style for footnote reference numbers.
Specify the number used for the first footnote in the story. Each story in a document begins with the same Start At number. If you have multiple documents in a book with continued page numbering, you may want to start the footnote numbering in each chapter to continue where the last chapter left off.
The Start At option is especially useful for documents in a book. Footnote numbering is not continued across documents in a book.
Restart Numbering Every
If you want numbering to restart within the document, select this option and choose Page, Spread, or Section to determine when footnote numbering is restarted. Some numbering styles, such as asterisks (*), work best when reset every page.
Show Prefix/Suffix In
Select this option to show prefixes or suffixes in the footnote reference, the footnote text, or both. Prefixes appear before the number (such as [1) and suffixes appear after the number (such as 1]). This option is especially useful for placing footnotes within characters, such as . Type a character or characters or select an option for Prefix, Suffix, or both. To select special characters, click the icons next to the Prefix and Suffix controls to display a menu.
If you think the footnote reference number is too close to the preceding text, adding one of the space characters as a prefix might improve the appearance. You can also apply a character style to the reference number.
This option determines the appearance of the footnote reference number, which is superscript by default. If you prefer to format the number using a character style (such as a character style that includes OpenType superscript settings), choose Apply Normal, and specify the character style.
This option determines the appearance of the footnote reference number, which is Ruby by default. Choosing Apply Normal is useful if you want to format the reference number’s position using a character style.
You may want to choose a character style to format the footnote reference number. For example, instead of using superscript, you might want to use a character style at a normal position with an elevated baseline. The menu displays the character styles available in the Character Styles panel.
You may want to choose a paragraph style that formats the footnote text for all footnotes in the document. The menu displays the paragraph styles available in the Paragraph Styles panel. By default, the [Basic Paragraph] style is used. Note that the [Basic Paragraph] style may not have the same appearance as the default font settings for the document.
The separator determines the white space that appears between the footnote number and the start of the footnote text. To change the separator, first select or delete the existing separator, and then choose a new separator. You can include multiple characters. To insert white space characters, use the appropriate metacharacter, such as ^m for em space.
Footnote layout options
The following options appear in the Layout section of the Footnote Options dialog box:
Span Footnotes Across Columns
This option makes all the footnotes in the document span across the columns.
Minimum Space Before First Footnote
This option determines the minimum amount of space between the bottom of the column and the first footnote line. You cannot use a negative value. Any Space Before setting in the footnote paragraph is ignored.
Space Between Footnotes
This option determines the distance between the last paragraph of one footnote and the first paragraph of the next footnote in a column. You cannot use a negative value. The Space Before/Space After values in a footnote’s paragraph apply only if the footnote includes multiple paragraphs.
First Baseline Offset
This option determines the distance between the start of the footnote area (where the footnote divider appears by default) and the first line of footnote text.
Place End Of Story Footnotes At Bottom Of Text
Select this option if you want the last column’s footnotes to appear just below the text in the last frame of the story. If this option is not selected, any footnote in the last frame of the story appears at the bottom of the column.
Allow Split Footnotes
Select this option if you want footnotes to break across a column when the footnote exceeds the amount of space available for it in that column. If splitting is not allowed, the line containing the footnote reference number moves to the next column, or the text becomes overset.
If Allow Split Footnotes is turned on, you can still prevent an individual footnote from splitting by placing the insertion point in the footnote text, choosing Keep Options from the Paragraph panel menu, and selecting the Keep Lines Together and All Lines In Paragraph options. If the footnote contains multiple paragraphs, use the Keep With Next X Lines option in the first paragraph of the footnote text. You can choose Type > Insert Break Character > Column Break to control where the footnote is split.
Specify the location and appearance of the footnote divider line that appears above the footnote text. A divider line (also called a “separator line”) also appears above any footnote text continued in a separate frame. The options you select apply to either the First Footnote In Column or Continued Footnotes, whichever is selected in the menu. These options are similar to those that appear when you specify a paragraph rule. If you want to remove the footnote divider line, deselect Rule On.
Work with footnote text
As you edit footnote text, note the following:
When the insertion point is in footnote text, choosing Edit > Select All selects all the footnote text for that footnote, but no other footnote or text.
Use the arrow keys to navigate among footnotes.
Footnote numbering is not continued across documents in a book. If you don’t want numbering to restart in each document with the book, you need to change the Start At value manually in each document after the editing is final.
In Story Editor, you can click the footnote icon to expand or collapse a footnote. You can expand or collapse all footnotes by choosing View > Story Editor > Expand All Footnotes or Collapse AllFootnotes.
In Galley view or Story view, you can click the footnote icon to expand or collapse footnotes. You can expand or collapse all footnotes by right-clicking (Windows) or Ctrl-clicking (Mac OS) a footnote and choosing Expand All Footnotes or Collapse All Footnotes.
You can select and apply character and paragraph formatting to footnote text. You can also select and change the appearance of the footnote reference number, but the recommended method is using the Document Footnote Options dialog box.
When you cut or copy text that includes the footnote reference number, the footnote text is also added to the clipboard. If you copy the text to a different document, the footnotes in that text use the characteristics of the new document’s numbering and layout appearance.
If you accidentally delete the footnote number at the start of the footnote text, you can add it back by placing the insertion point at the beginning of the footnote text, right-clicking (Windows) or Control-clicking (Mac OS), and choosing Insert Special Character > Markers > Footnote Number.
Text wrap has no effect on footnote text.
If you clear overrides and character styles on a paragraph that includes a footnote reference marker, the footnote reference numbers lose the attributes you applied in the Document Footnote Options dialog box.
Span footnotes across columns
To make all the footnotes in your document span columns:
Choose Type > Document Footnote Options.
Select the Layout tab.
Check Span Footnotes Across Columns.
To delete a footnote, select the footnote reference number that appears in text, and then press Backspace or Delete. If you delete only the footnote text, the footnote reference number and footnote structure remain.