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Creating a mobile site is similar to creating a standard site as it also involves creating templates and components. For more details on creating templates and components, please refer to the following pages: Templates, Components and Creating a Fully Featured Internet Website.  The main difference consists in enabling the AEM built-in mobile functionalities within the site. It is achieved by creating a template that relies on the mobile page component.

You should also consider using responsive design, creating a single site that accommodates multiple screen sizes.

To get started you can have a look at the Geometrixx Mobile Demo Site that is available in AEM.

To create a mobile site, proceed as follows:

  1. Create the page component:
    • Set the sling:resourceSuperType property to wcm/mobile/components/page
      This way the component relies on the mobile page component.
    • Create the body.jsp with the project specific logic.
  2. Create the page template:
    • Set the sling:resourceType property to the newly created page component.
    • Set the allowedPaths property.
  3. Create the design page for the site.
  4. Create the site root page below the /content node:
    • Set the cq:allowedTemplates property.
    • Set the cq:designPath property.
  5. In the page properties of the site root page, set the device groups in the Mobile tab.
  6. Create the site pages by using the new template.

The mobile page component (/libs/wcm/mobile/components/page):

  • Adds the Mobile tab to the page properties dialog.
  • Through its head.jsp, it retrieves the current mobile device group from the request and if a device group is found, uses the group's drawHead() method to include the device group's associated emulator init component (only in author mode) and the device group's rendering CSS.

Uwaga:

The root page of the mobile site needs to be at the level 1 of the node hierarchy, and is recommended to be below the /content node.

Creating a Mobile Site with the Multi Site Manager

Use Multi Site Manager (MSM) to create a mobile live copy from a standard site. The standard site is automatically transformed into a mobile site: the mobile site has all the features of the mobile sites (e.g. edition within an emulator) and can be managed in sync with the standard site. Refer to the section Creating a Live Copy for different Channels in the Multi Site Manager page.

Server-Side Mobile API

The Java packages containing the mobile classes are:

Mobile Components

The Geometrixx Mobile Demo Site uses the following mobile components which are located below /libs/foundation/components:

Name Group Characteristics
mobilefooter hidden - footer
mobileimage Mobile - based on the image foundation component
- renders an image if the device is capable
mobilelist Mobile - based on the list foundation component
- listitem_teaser.jsp renders an image if the device is capable
mobilelogo hidden - based on the logo foundation component
- renders an image if the device is capable
mobilereference Mobile

- similar to the reference  foundation component

- maps a textimage component to a mobiletextimage one and an image component to a mobileimage one

mobiletextimage Mobile - based on the textimage foundation component
- renders an image if the device is capable
mobiletopnav hidden

- based on the topnav foundation component

- only renders text

Creating a Mobile Component

The AEM mobile framework allows to develop components that are sensitive to the device issuing the request. The following code samples show how to use the AEM mobile API in a component jsp and particularly how to:

  • Get the device from the request:
    Device device = slingRequest.adaptTo(Device.class);
  • Get the device group:
    DeviceGroup deviceGroup = device.getDeviceGroup();
  • Get the device group capabilities:
    Collection<DeviceCapability> capabilities = deviceGroup.getCapabilities();
  • Get the device attributes (raw capability key/values from the WURFL database):
    Map<String,String> deviceAttributes = device.getAttributes();
  • Get the device user-agent:
    String userAgent = device.getUserAgent();
  • Get the device group list (device groups assigned to the site by the author) from the current page:
    DeviceGroupList deviceGroupList = currentPage.adaptTo(DeviceGroupList.class);
  • Check if the device group supports images
    if (deviceGroup.hasCapability(DeviceCapability.CAPABILITY_IMAGES)) {
    ...
    OR
    if MobileUtil.hasCapability(request, DeviceCapability.CAPABILITY_IMAGES) {
    ...

Uwaga:

In a jsp, slingRequest is available through the <sling:defineObjects> tag  and currentPage through the <cq:defineObjects> tag.

Emulators

Emulator-based authoring provides authors the means to create content pages intended for mobile clients. Mobile content authoring follows the same principle of in-place WYSIWYG editing. In order for authors to perceive the page appearance on a mobile device, a mobile content page is edited by using a device emulator.

Mobile devices emulators are based on the generic emulator framework. For more details please refer to the Emulators page.

The device emulator displays the mobile device on the page whereas the usual editing (parsys, components) occurs within the device's screen. The device emulator depends on the device groups that are configured for the site. Several emulators can be assigned to a device group. All the emulators are then available on the content page. By default the first emulator assigned to the first device group assigned to the site, is displayed. Emulators can be switched either via the emulator carousel at the top of the page or via the Sidekick's edit button.

Creating an emulator

To create an emulator, please refer to the Creating a Custom Mobile Emulator section in the generic Emulators page.

 

Main characteristics of mobile emulators

  • A device group is composed of one of more emulators: the device group configuration page, e.g. /etc/mobile/groups/touch, contains the emulators property below the jcr:content node.
    Note: although it's possible that the same emulator belongs to several device groups, it does not make much sense.
  • Via the device group's configuration dialog, the emulators property is set with the path of the desired emulator(s). For example: /libs/wcm/mobile/components/emulators/iPhone4.
  • The emulator components (e.g. /libs/wcm/mobile/components/emulators/iPhone4) extend the base mobile emulator component (/libs/wcm/mobile/components/emulators/base).
  • Every component extending the base mobile emulator is available for selection when configuring a device group. Custom emulators can thus be easily created or extended.
  • At request time in edit mode, the emulator implementation is used to render the page.
  • When the template of the page relies on the mobile page component, the emulator functionalities are automatically integrated in the page (through the head.jsp of the mobile page component).

Device Groups

Mobile device groups provide segmentation of mobile devices based on the device capabilities. A device group provides the information required for emulator-based authoring on the author instance and for correct content rendering on the publish instance: once authors have added content to the mobile page and have published it, the page can be requested on the publish instance. There, instead of the emulator editing view, the content page is rendered using one of the configured device groups. The selection of the device group occurs based on mobile device detection. The matching device group then provides the necessary styling information.

Device groups are defined as content pages below /etc/mobile/devices and use the Mobile Device Group template. The device group template serves as a configuration template for device group definitions in the form of content pages. Its main characteristics are:

  • Location: /libs/wcm/mobile/templates/devicegroup
  • Allowed Path: /etc/mobile/groups/*
  • Page Component: wcm/mobile/components/devicegroup

Assigning Device Groups to your Site

When you create a mobile site, you need to assign device groups to your site. AEM provides three device groups depending on the device's HTML and JavaScript rendering abilities:

  • Feature phones, for feature devices like the Sony Ericsson W800 with support for basic HTML but no support for images and JavaScript.
  • Smart phones, for devices like the Blackberry with support for basic HTML and images,  but no support for JavaScript.
  • Touch phones, for devices like the iPad with full support for HTML, images, JavaScript and device rotation.

As emulators can be associated with a device group (see the section Creating a Device Group), assigning a device group to a site enables authors to select between the emulators that are associated with the device group to edit the page.

To assign a device group to your site:

  1. In your browser, go to the Siteadmin console.
  2. Open the root page of your mobile site below Websites.
  3. Open the page properties.
  4. Select the Mobile tab:
    • Define the device groups.
    • Click OK.

Uwaga:

When the device groups have been defined for a site, they are inherited by all the pages of the site.

Device Group Filters

Device group filters define capability-based criteria for determining whether a device belongs in the group. When you create a device group, you can select the filters to use for evaluating devices.

At run time when AEM receives an HTTP request from a device, each filter that is associated with a group compares the device capabilities with specific criteria. The device is considered to belong to the group when it has all the capabilities that the filters require. Capabilities are retrieved from the WURFL™ database.

Device groups can use zero or more filters for capability detection. Also, a filter can be used with multiple device groups. AEM provides a default filter that determines whether the device has the capabilities that are selected for a group:

  • CSS
  • JPG and PNG images
  • JavaScript
  • Device rotation

If the device group does not use a filter, the selected capabilities that are configured for the group are the only capabilities that a device requires.

For more information, see Creating Device Group Filters.

Creating a Device Group

Create a device group when the groups that AEM installs do not meet your requirements.

  1. In your browser, go to the Tools console.
  2. Create a new page below ToolsMobile > Device Groups. In the Create Page dialog:
    • As Title enter Special Phones.
    • As Name enter special.
    • Select the Mobile Device Group Template.
    • Click Create.
  3. In CRXDE, add a static.css file containing the styles for the device group below the /etc/mobile/groups/special node.
  4. Open the Special Phones page.
  5. To configure the device group, click the Edit button beside Settings.
    On the General tab:
    • Title: the name of the mobile device group.
    • Description: description of the group.
    • User-Agent: user-agent string which the devices are matched against. It is optional and can be a regex. Example: BlackBerryZ10
    • Capabilities: defines if the group can handle images, CSS, JavaScript or device rotation.
    • Minimum Screen Width and Height
    • Disable Emulator: to able/disable the emulator during content editing.
    On the Emulators tab:
    • Emulators: select the emulators assigned to this device group.
    On the Filters tab:
    • To add a filter, click Add Item and select a filter from the drop-down list.
    • Filters are evaluated in the order that they appear. When a device does not meet a filter's criteria, subsequent filters on the list are not evaluated.
  6. Click OK.

The mobile device group configuration dialog looks as follows:

Custom CSS per Device Group

As described before, it is possible to associate a custom CSS with a device group page, much like the CSS of a design page.This CSS is used to influence the device group specific rendering of the page content on author and on publish.This CSS is then automatically included:

  • In the page on the author instance for every emulator used by this device group.
  • In the page on the publish instance if the request's user agent matches a mobile device in this particular device group.

Server-Side Device Detection

Use filters and a library of device specifications to determine the capabilities of the device that performs the HTTP request.

Develop Device Group Filters

Create a device group filter to define a set of device capability requirements. Create as many filters as you require to target the needed groups of device capabilities.

Design your filters so that you can use combinations of them to define the groups of capabilities. Typically, there is overlap of the capabilities of different  device groups. Therefore, you might use some filters with multiple device group definitions.

After you create a filter, you can use it in the group configuration.

For information, go to Creating Device Group Filters.

Using the WURFL™ Database

AEM uses a truncated version of the WURFL™ database to query device capabilities, such as screen resolution or javascript support, based on the device's User-Agent.

The XML code of the WURFL™ database is represented as nodes below /var/mobile/devicespecs by parsing the wurfl.xml file at /libs/wcm/mobile/devicespecs/wurfl.xml. The expansion to nodes occurs the first time that the cq-mobile-core bundle is started.

Device capabilities are stored as node properties, and nodes represent device models. You can use queries to retrieve the capabilities of a device or user agent.

As the WURFL™ database is evolving, you may need to customize or replace it. To update the mobile devices database you have the following options:

  • Replace the file with the latest version, if you have a license that allows this usage. See Installing a Different WURFL Database.
  • Use the version that is available in AEM and configure a regexp that matches your User-Agent strings and points to an existing WURFL™ device. See Adding a regexp-based User-Agent Matching.

Testing the Mapping of a User-Agent to WURFL™ Capabilities

When a device accesses your mobile site, AEM detects the device, maps it to a device group according to its capabilities and sends a view of the page that corresponds to the device group. The matching device group provides the necessary styling information. The mappings can be tested on the Mobile User-Agent Test Page:

http://localhost:4502/etc/mobile/useragent-test.html

Installing a Different WURFL™ Database

The truncated WURFL™ database that is installed with AEM is a release that pre-dates
August 30th 2011. If your version of the WURFL was released after August 30, 2011, make sure your usage complies with your license.

To install a WURFL™ database:

  1. In CRXDE Lite, create the following folder: /apps/wcm/mobile/devicespecs
  2. Copy the WURFL™ file to the folder.
  3. Rename the file as wurfl.xml.

AEM automatically parses the wurfl.xml file and updates the nodes below/var/mobile/devicespecs.

Uwaga:

When the full WURFL™ database is enabled, parsing and activation might take a few minutes. You can watch the logs for progress information.

Adding a regexp-based User-Agent Matching

Add a user-agent as a regular expression below /apps/wcm/mobile/devicespecs/wurfl/regexp to point to an existing WURFL™ device type. 

  1. In CRXDE Lite, create a node below /apps/wcm/mobile/devicespecs/regexp, e.g. apple_ipad_ver1.
  2. Add the following properties to the node:
    • regexp: regular expression defining user-agents, e.g.:  .*Mozilla.*iPad.*AppleWebKit.*Safari.*
    • deviceId: the device ID as defined in the wurfl.xml, e.g.:  apple_ipad_ver1

The above configuration causes devices for which the User-Agent matches the supplied regular expression to be mapped to the apple_ipad_ver1 WURFL™ device ID, if it exists.

Client-Side Device Detection

This section describes how to use the device client-side detection of AEM in order to optimize page rendering or to provide the client with alternate website versions.

AEM supports device client-side detection based on BrowserMap. BrowserMap is shipped in AEM as a client library under /etc/clientlibs/browsermap.

BrowserMap provides you with three strategies you can use to provide an alternate website to a client, which are employed in the following order:

  1. Alternate links
  2. Device Group Specific URL
  3. Selector-based URL

Uwaga:

For more information about Client Library integration, please read the Using Client-Side HTML Libraries section.

The PageVariantsProvider OSGi service is capable of generating alternate links for sites belonging to the same family. In order to configure sites to be taken into consideration by the service, a cq:siteVariant node has to be added to the jcr:content node from the root of the site.

The cq:siteVariant node needs to have the following properties:

  • cq:childNodesMapTo - determines to which attribute of the link element the child nodes will be mapped; it is recommended to organize the content of your website in such a way so that the children of the root node represent the root for a language variant of your global website (e.g. /content/mysite/en, /content/mysite/de), in which case the value of the cq:childNodesMapTo should be hreflang;
  • cq:variantDomain - indicates what Externalizer domain will be used to generate the page variants absolute URLs; if this value is not set then the page variants will be generated using relative links;
  • cq:variantFamily - indicates to which family of websites this site belongs; multiple device-specific representations of the same website should belong to the same family;
  • media - stores the values of the media attribute of the link element; it is recommended to use the name of the BrowserMap registered DeviceGroups, so that the BrowserMap library can automatically forward the clients to the correct variant of the website.

PageVariantsProvider and Externalizer

When the value of the cq:variantDomain property of a cq:siteVariant node is not empty, the PageVariantsProvider service will generate absolute links using this value as a configured domain for the Externalizer service. Make sure to configure the Externalizer service to reflect your setup.

Uwaga:

When working with AEM there are several methods of managing the configuration settings for such services; see Configuring OSGi for more details and the recommended practices.

Defining a Device Group Specific URL

If you don't want to use alternate links, you can configure a global URL for each DeviceGroup. We recommend creating your own client library that embeds the browsermap.standard client library but redefines the device groups.

BrowserMap is designed in such a way that Device Groups definitions can be overriden by creating and adding a new Device Group with the same name to the BrowserMap object from your customised client library.

Uwaga:

For more details please read the Customised BrowserMap section.

Defining Selector-based URLs

If none of the previous mechanisms have been employed in order to indicate an alternate site for BrowserMap, then selectors that will use the names of the DeviceGroups will be added to the URLs, in which case you should provide your own servlets that will handle the requests.

For example a device browsing www.example.com/index.html identified as smartphone by BrowserMap is forwarded to www.example.com/index.smartphone.html.

Using BrowserMap On Your Pages

In order to use the standard BrowserMap client library in a page, you have to include the /libs/wcm/core/browsermap/browsermap.jsp file using a cq:include tag in your page's head section.

<cq:include script="/libs/wcm/core/browsermap/browsermap.jsp" />

Besides adding the BrowserMap client library in your JSP files, you also have to add a cq:deviceIdentificationMode String property set to client-side to the jcr:content node below the root of your web site.

Overriding BrowserMap's default behaviour

If you would like to customise BrowserMap - by overriding the DeviceGroups or adding more probes - then you should create your own client-side library in which you embed the browsermap.standard client-side library.

Furthermore, you have to manually call the BrowserMap.forwardRequest() method in your JavaScript code.

Uwaga:

For more information about Client Library integration, please read the Using Client-Side HTML Libraries section.

Once you've created your customised BrowserMap client library, we suggest the following approach:

  1. Create a browsermap.jsp file in your application

    <%@include file="/libs/foundation/global.jsp" %>
    <%@ taglib prefix="c" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" %>
    <%@ page import="
        com.day.cq.wcm.api.variants.PageVariant,
        com.day.cq.wcm.api.variants.PageVariantsProvider,
        com.day.cq.wcm.api.devicedetection.DeviceIdentificationMode,
        com.day.cq.wcm.api.WCMMode"
    %>
    <%
        final PageVariantsProvider p = sling.getService(PageVariantsProvider.class);
        if(p == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Missing PageVariantsProvider service");
        }
        for(PageVariant v : p.getVariants(currentPage, slingRequest)) {
            final String curVar = v.getAttributes().get("data-current-variant");
            String media = v.getAttributes().get("media");
            if (media != null) {
                media = media.replaceAll(" ", "");
            }
    %>
        <link
            rel="alternate"
            data-cq-role="site.variant"
            title="<%= xssAPI.encodeForHTMLAttr(v.getTitle()) %>"
            hreflang="<%= xssAPI.encodeForHTMLAttr(v.getAttributes().get("hreflang")) %>"
            media="<%= xssAPI.encodeForHTMLAttr(media) %>"
            href="<%= xssAPI.getValidHref(v.getURL()) %>"
            <% if(curVar != null) { %> data-current-variant="<%= curVar %>"<% } %>
        />
    <%
        }
        Boolean browserMapEnabled = true;
        final DeviceIdentificationMode dim = sling.getService(DeviceIdentificationMode.class);
        String[] selectors  = slingRequest.getRequestPathInfo().getSelectors();
        boolean isPortletRequest = false;
        for (int i = 0; i < selectors.length; i++) {
            if ("portlet".equals(selectors[i])) {
                isPortletRequest = true;
                break;
            }
        }
        if (isPortletRequest) {
            log.debug("Request was made by a portlet container - BrowserMap will not be embedded");
        } else {
            final WCMMode wcmMode = WCMMode.fromRequest(slingRequest);
            boolean shouldIncludeClientLib = false;
            if (WCMMode.EDIT != wcmMode && WCMMode.PREVIEW != wcmMode && WCMMode.DESIGN != wcmMode) {
                if (dim != null) {
                    final String mode = dim.getDeviceIdentificationModeForPage(currentPage);
                    shouldIncludeClientLib = DeviceIdentificationMode.CLIENT_SIDE.equals(mode);
                    if (shouldIncludeClientLib) {
                        browserMapEnabled = (Boolean) request.getAttribute("browsermap.enabled");
                        if (browserMapEnabled == null) {
                            browserMapEnabled = true;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
    %>
            <c:if test="<%= !browserMapEnabled %>">
                <meta name="browsermap.enabled" content="false">
            </c:if>
            <c:if test="<%= shouldIncludeClientLib %>">
                <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
                <cq:includeClientLib categories="browsermap.custom"/>
            </c:if>
    <%
        }
    %>
    
  2. Include the broswermap.jsp file in your head section.

    <cq:include script="browsermap.jsp" />

Excluding BrowserMap From Certain Pages

If you would like to exclude the BrowserMap library from some of your pages where you don't need client-detection you can add a request attribute:

<%
request.setAttribute("browsermap.enabled", false);
%>

This will make the /libs/wcm/core/browsermap/browsermap.jsp script to add a meta tag to the page that will make BrowserMap to not perform any detection:

<meta name="browsermap.enabled" content="false">

Testing a Specific Version of a Web Site

Normally, the BrowserMap script always redirects visitors to the best suited version of the web site, typically redirecting visitors to the desktop or to the mobile site when needed.

You can force the device of any request in order to test a specific version of a web site by adding the device parameter to your URL. The folllowing URL will render the mobile version of the Geometrixx Outdoors web site.

http://localhost:4502/content/geometrixx-outdoors/en.html?wcmmode=disabled&device=smartphone

Uwaga:

The wcmmode paratemer is set to disabled in order to simulate the behavior of a publish instance.

The overriden device value is stored in a cookie so you can browse your web site without adding the device parameter to each URL.

As a consequence you need to call the same URL with the device set to browser in order to get back to the desktop version of the web site.

Uwaga:

BrowserMap stores the overriden device value in a cookie called BMAP_device. Deleting this cookie will ensure that CQ will serve the appropriate version of the web site according to your current device (e.g. desktop or mobile).

Mobile Request Processing

AEM processes a request issued by a mobile device that belongs to the touch device group as follows:

  1. An iPad sends a request to the AEM publish instance, e.g. http://localhost:4503/content/geometrixx_mobile/en/products.html
  2. AEM determines whether the site of the requested page is a mobile site (by checking whether the first level page /content/geometrixx_mobile extends the mobile page component). If yes:
  3. AEM looks up the device capabilities based on the User-Agent in the request header.
  4. AEM maps the device capabilities to the device group and sets touch as the device group selector.
  5. AEM redirects the request to http://localhost:4503/content/geometrixx_mobile/en/products.touch.html.
  6. AEM sends the response to the iPad:
    • products.touch.html is rendered in the usual way and is cachable.
    • The rendering components use selectors to adapt the presentation.
    • AEM automatically adds the mobile selector to all the internal links in the page.

Statistics

You can get some statistics about the number of requests that were made to the AEM server by mobile devices. The number of requests can be broken down:

  • per device group and device
  • per year, month and day

To view the statistics:

  1. Go to the Tools console.
  2. Open the Device Statistics page below Tools > Mobile.
  3. Click the link to view the statistics for a specific year, month or day.

The Statistics page looks as follows:

screen_shot_2012-02-01at24353pm

Uwaga:

The Statistics page is created the first time a mobile device accesses AEM and is detected. Before that, it is not available.

If you need to generate an entry in the statistics, you can proceed as follows:

  1. Use a mobile device or an emulator (as for example http://chrispederick.com/work/user-agent-switcher/ on Firefox).
  2. Request a mobile page on the author instance by disabling the authoring mode, e.g.:
    http://localhost:4502/content/geometrixx_mobile/en/products.html?wcmmode=disabled

The Statistics page is now available.

Mobile pages are generally cachable on Dispatcher, because pages that are rendered for a device group are distinguished in the page URL by the device group selector, for example /content/mobilepage.touch.html. A request to a mobile page without a selector is never cached, as in this case, the device detection operates and finally redirects to the matching device group (or "nomatch" for that matter). A mobile page rendered with a device group selector is processed by the link rewriter, which rewrites all links within the page to also contain the device group selector, preventing from re-performing device detection for every click on an already qualified page.

Therefore you might encounter the following scenario:

User Alice gets redirected to coolpage.feature.html, and sends that URL to a friend Bob who accesses it with a different client which falls in the touch device group.

If coolpage.feature.html is served from a front-end cache, AEM does not get a chance to analyze the request to find out that the mobile selector does not match the new User-Agent, and Bob gets the wrong representation.

To solve it, you can include a simple selection UI on the pages, where end users can override the device group that was selected by AEM. In the above example, a link (or an icon) on the page allows the end user to switch to coolpage.touch.html if he thinks that his device is good enough for that.

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