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Understanding sound

  1. Audition User Guide
  2. Introduction
    1. What's new in Adobe Audition
    2. Audition system requirements
    3. Finding and customizing shortcuts
    4. Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
  3. Workspace and setup
    1. Control surface support
    2. Viewing, zooming, and navigating audio
    3. Customizing workspaces
    4. Connecting to audio hardware in Audition
    5. Customizing and saving application settings
  4. Digital audio fundamentals
    1. Understanding sound
    2. Digitizing audio
  5. Importing, recording, and playing
    1. Multichannel audio workflow
    2. Create, open, or import files in Adobe Audition
    3. Importing with the Files panel
    4. Extracting audio from CDs
    5. Supported import formats
    6. Navigate time and playing audio in Adobe Audition
    7. Recording audio
    8. Monitoring recording and playback levels
    9. Remove silences from your audio recordings
  6. Editing audio files
    1. Edit, repair, and improve audio using Essential Sound panel
    2. Generating text-to-speech
    3. Matching loudness across multiple audio files
    4. Displaying audio in the Waveform Editor
    5. Selecting audio
    6. How to copy, cut, paste, and delete audio in Audition
    7. Visually fading and changing amplitude
    8. Working with markers
    9. Inverting, reversing, and silencing audio
    10. How to automate common tasks in Audition
    11. Analyze phase, frequency, and amplitude with Audition
    12. Frequency Band Splitter
    13. Undo, redo, and history
    14. Converting sample types
    15. Creating podcasts using Audition
  7. Applying effects
    1. Enabling CEP extensions
    2. Effects controls
    3. Applying effects in the Waveform Editor
    4. Applying effects in the Multitrack Editor
    5. Adding third party plugins
    6. Notch Filter effect
    7. Fade and Gain Envelope effects (Waveform Editor only)
    8. Manual Pitch Correction effect (Waveform Editor only)
    9. Graphic Phase Shifter effect
    10. Doppler Shifter effect (Waveform Editor only)
  8. Effects reference
    1. Apply amplitude and compression effects to audio
    2. Delay and echo effects
    3. Diagnostics effects (Waveform Editor only) for Audition
    4. Filter and equalizer effects
    5. Modulation effects
    6. Reduce noise and restore audio
    7. Reverb effects
    8. How to use special effects with Audition
    9. Stereo imagery effects
    10. Time and pitch manipulation effects
    11. Generate tones and noise
  9. Mixing multitrack sessions
    1. Creating remix
    2. Multitrack Editor overview
    3. Basic multitrack controls
    4. Multitrack routing and EQ controls
    5. Arrange and edit multitrack clips with Audition
    6. Looping clips
    7. How to match, fade, and mix clip volume with Audition
    8. Automating mixes with envelopes
    9. Multitrack clip stretching
  10. Video and surround sound
    1. Working with video applications
    2. Importing video and working with video clips
    3. 5.1 surround sound
  11. Keyboard shortcuts
    1. Finding and customizing shortcuts
    2. Default keyboard shortcuts
  12. Saving and exporting
    1. Save and export audio files
    2. Viewing and editing XMP metadata

Sound waves

Sound starts with vibrations in the air, like those produced by guitar strings, vocal cords, or speaker cones. These vibrations push nearby air molecules together, raising the air pressure slightly. The air molecules under pressure then push on the air molecules surrounding them, which push on the next set of molecules, and so on. As high-pressure areas move through the air, they leave low-pressure areas behind them. When these waves of pressure changes reach us, they vibrate the receptors in our ears, and we hear the vibrations as sound.

When you see a visual waveform that represents audio, it reflects these waves of air pressure. The zero line in the waveform is the pressure of air at rest. When the line swings up to a peak, it represents higher pressure; when the line swings down to a trough, it represents lower pressure.

A sound wave represented as a visual waveform

A. Zero line B. Low-pressure area C. High-pressure area 

Waveform measurements

Several measurements describe waveforms:

Amplitude

Reflects the change in pressure from the peak of the waveform to the trough. High-amplitude waveforms are loud; low-amplitude waveforms are quiet.

Cycle

Describes a single, repeated sequence of pressure changes, from zero pressure, to high pressure, to low pressure, and back to zero.

Frequency

Measured in hertz (Hz), describes the number of cycles per second. (For example, a 1000-Hz waveform has 1000 cycles per second.) The higher the frequency, the higher the musical pitch.

Phase

Measured in 360 degrees, indicates the position of a waveform in a cycle. Zero degrees is the start point, followed by 90º at high pressure, 180º at the halfway point, 270º at low pressure, and 360º at the end point.

Wavelength

Measured in units such as inches or centimeters, is the distance between two points with the same degree of phase. As frequency increases, wavelength decreases.

A single cycle at left; a complete, 20-Hz waveform at right

A. Wavelength B. Degree of phase C. Amplitude D. One second 

How sound waves interact

When two or more sound waves meet, they add to and subtract from each other. If their peaks and troughs are perfectly in phase, they reinforce each other, resulting in a waveform that has higher amplitude than either individual waveform.

If the peaks and troughs of two waveforms are perfectly out of phase, they cancel each other out, resulting in no waveform at all.

In most cases, however, waves are out of phase in varying amounts, resulting in a combined waveform that is more complex than individual waveforms. A complex waveform that represents music, voice, noise, and other sounds, for example, combines the waveforms from each sound.

ملاحظة:

Because of its unique physical structure, a single instrument can create extremely complex waves. That’s why a violin and a trumpet sound different even when playing the same note.

In‑phase waves reinforce each other.

Out‑of‑phase waves cancel each other out.

Two simple waves combine to create a complex wave.

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