Your computer must meet certain minimum system requirements to run Photoshop optimally. Running Photoshop on underpowered or unsupported hardware—for example, on a computer having an incompatible graphics processor (GPU)—may result in performance issues.
In general, you should take a holistic approach to optimizing Photoshop's performance for your needs. From the suggestions documented in this article, consider which ones to implement within the context of your computer setup, the types of files you use, and your particular workflow. Every user's setup is unique and may require a different combination of techniques to get the most efficient performance from Photoshop.
There are four primary ways to affect performance in Photoshop:
- Specify Photoshop performance preferences
- Fine-tune Photoshop features
- Optimize your hardware setup
- Optimize your operating system for Photoshop
The easiest way to improve performance, without spending money, is to set your Photoshop preferences and fine-tune its features to take advantage of the way you work and the type of files you typically work with.
The most dramatic way to increase performance is investing in faster and more-powerful hardware.
Photoshop provides a set of preferences (Preferences > Performance) to help you make optimum use of your computer's resources, such as memory, cache, graphics processor, displays, etc. Depending on your primary use case for using Photoshop and the types of documents you generally work with, different combinations of these settings may suit you.
Additional settings such as Scratch Disks, available on other tabs of the Preferences dialog, may also directly impact your computer's running speed and stability.
You can improve performance by increasing the amount of memory/RAM allocated to Photoshop. The Memory Usage area of the Performance preferences dialog (Preferences > Performance) tells you how much RAM is available to Photoshop. It also shows the ideal Photoshop memory allocation range for your system.
By default, Photoshop uses 70% of available RAM.
- Increase the RAM allocated to Photoshop by changing the value in the Let Photoshop Use box. Alternatively, adjust the Memory Usage slider.
- Restart Photoshop to enable your changes.
To find the ideal RAM allocation for your system, change it in 5% increments and monitor performance in the Efficiency indicator.
We don't recommend allocating more than 85% of your computer's memory to Photoshop. Doing so may affect performance by leaving no memory for other essential system applications.
If you experience out-of-RAM or out-of-memory errors in Photoshop, try increasing the amount of RAM allocated to Photoshop. However, setting the RAM allocation for Photoshop too high (>85%) could affect the performance of other running applications, making your system unstable.
The best solution to this issue is to increase the amount of RAM to your computer. Check with your computer manufacturer for RAM specifications and compatibility.
Photoshop uses image caching to speed up the redrawing of high-resolution documents while you're working on them. You can specify up to eight levels of cached image data and choose one of the four available cache tile sizes.
Increasing cache levels improves Photoshop’s responsiveness while you work, although images may take longer to load. The cache tile size determines the amount of data on which Photoshop operates at a time. Bigger tile sizes speed up complex operations, such as sharpening filters. Smaller changes, such as brush strokes, are more responsive with smaller tile sizes.
Three cache presets are available in the Performance preferences. Choose the one that matches your primary use case/purpose of using Photoshop:
- Web/UI Design: Choose this option if you use Photoshop primarily for web, app, or screen design. This option is appropriate for documents having numerous layers of low-to-medium pixel dimension assets.
- Default/Photos: Choose this option if you use Photoshop primarily to retouch or edit moderate-sized images. For example, use this option if you normally edit photos originating from your mobile or digital camera in Photoshop.
- Huge Pixel Dimensions: Choose this option if you work extensively with heavy documents in Photoshop; for example, panoramas, matte paintings, etc.
For finer control, specify cache levels manually; the default value is 4.
- If you use relatively small files—roughly 1 megapixel or 1280 by 1024 pixels—and many layers (50 or more), set Cache Levels to 1 or 2. Setting Cache Levels to 1 disables image caching; only the current screen image is cached.
- If you use files with larger pixel dimensions—say, 50 megapixels or larger—set Cache Levels higher than 4. Higher cache levels speed up redrawing.
You may not get high-quality results with some Photoshop features if you set Cache Levels to 1.
You can save scratch disk space and improve performance by limiting or reducing the number of history states Photoshop saves in the History panel. The amount of space you save varies depending on how many pixels an operation changes. For example, a history state based on a small paint stroke or a non-destructive operation, such as creating or modifying an adjustment layer, consumes little space. Applying a filter to an entire image, on the other hand, consumes much more space.
Photoshop can save up to 1,000 history states; the default number is 50.
To reduce that number, go to the Performance preference dialog. In the History & Cache
section, set the the number of History States to a lower value.
The best way to optimize GPU acceleration, which speeds up screen redraws, is to keep your video adapter driver up to date. For instructions on updating video adapter drivers
For more information how Photoshop leverages the graphics processor, tested cards, and minimum graphics processor and display requirements.
Photoshop provides you with dedicated GPU settings in both the Performance and 3D sections in the Preferences dialog.
Settings in the Preferences > Performance section
If a graphics card is detected on your system, its name and model will appear under Detectected Graphics Processor in the Graphics Processor Settings area of the Performance section.
- If your graphics card is supported, the "Use Graphics Processor" checkbox is enable and checked by default.
- If your graphics card is not supported, the checkbox will be grayed out and not checked by default.
- If your graphics card is supported, and the "Use Graphics Processor" checkbox becomes unchecked, this is likely because Photoshop has detected a crash caused by a defective graphics driver or configuration. See Troubleshoot Photoshop graphics processor (GPU) and graphics driver issues.
Advanced Graphics Processor Settings
To fine-tune the card’s performance, click the Advanced Settings button.
Adjust Drawing Mode:
- Basic: This mode uses the least amount of graphics processor memory to run the most basic OpenGL features. Use this mode if the Normal and Advanced modes seem to be less smooth in their performance. This can happen when you routinely run other programs that occupy graphics processor memory. Select this option if you notice bad screen redraws or slower performance when using GPU-accelerated features.
- Normal: This mode uses a large amount of graphics processor memory to support advanced OpenGL features to perform color matching, tone mapping and checkerboard blending. This frees the CPU to perform other tasks.
- Advanced: This mode uses the graphics processor most intensively. It uses the same amount of memory as the Normal mode while enabling more advanced techniques to improve drawing performance. This setting is best when working in 3D or when working extensively with the GPU-accelerated features. If this mode seems to perform less smoothly, try switching to Normal or Basic mode.
Drawing Mode changes take effect only after Photoshop is restarted.
Additional advanced settings:
- Use Graphics Processor to Accelerate Computation: Enable to improve the interactivity of warp and puppet warp previews.
- Use OpenCL: Turn this off if Blur Gallery, Smart Sharpen, Select Focus Area or Image Size with Preserve Details do not work as expected.
- Anti-Alias Guides and Paths: Disable if guides and paths are appearing too heavy or too wide
- 30 Bit Display: Enable to increase the color fidelity on a monitor which supports 30 bit.
- Use native operating system GPU acceleration: Enable to allow use of macOS Metal and Windows DirectX 12 as appropriate.
Turning on OpenCL is likely to improve performance if you use these Photoshop features:
- Blur Gallery - Field Blur, Iris Blur, Tilt-Shift, Path Blur, Spin Blur (OpenCL accelerated)
- Smart Sharpen (Noise Reduction – OpenCL accelerated)
- Select and Mask (OpenCL accelerated)
Settings in the Preferences > 3D section
The 3D section of the Performances dialog box contains a VRAM slider similar to the memory control located in the Performance section. Use the slider to determine the upper limit of the video RAM (VRAM) available to the Photoshop 3D engine. The total value is a percentage of the overall VRAM available. A setting of 100% will still reserve a portion of the overall VRAM for use with the operating system. Higher values will help with overall 3D performance but may compete with other GPU-enabled applications.
If Photoshop cannot launch because the scratch disk is full, hold down the Cmd + Option keys (macOS) or Ctrl + Alt keys (Windows) during launch to set a new scratch disk.
A scratch disk is a disk drive or SSD used for temporary storage while Photoshop is running. Photoshop uses this space to store portions of your documents and their history panel states that don’t fit in the RAM memory. Scratch files go into invisible OS-specified folders, except for non-boot volumes on Windows, at the root directory of the drive. When a non-boot drive is used as a scratch disk, the temporary files are placed in the drive’s root directory.
By default, Photoshop uses the hard drive on which the operating system is installed as the primary scratch disk.
To learn more about managing scratch disk preferences, recommended settings, and troubleshooting, see Set up scratch disks.
Watch the Efficiency indicator to monitor performance while you work in Photoshop. Click the pop-up menu at the bottom of the image window and choose Efficiency from the pop-up menu.
If the value in the indicator is below 100%, Photoshop has used all available RAM and is using the scratch disk, which slows performance. If the efficiency is less than 90%, allocate more RAM to Photoshop in Performance preferences. Or, add more RAM to your system.
Having rulers and overlays (such as Grids, Slices and Smart Guides) visible can slow some operations, such as painting, transform, and dragging layers on the canvas.
- To disable rulers, in the View menu, deselect Rulers.
- To disable overlays, go to the View > Show menu, select None or disable the individual items.
Very large files are often the cause of performance problems.
Photoshop supports a maximum file size of 300,000 x 300,000 pixels, except for PDF files, which are limited to 30,000 x 30,000 pixels and 200 x 200 inches, and Camera Raw, which supports images up to 65,000 pixels long or wide and up to 512 megapixels.
File size capability for Photoshop:
- PSD files: 2 GB
- TIFF files: 4 GB
- PSB files: 4 exabytes (4096 petabytes or 4 million terabytes)
- PDF files: 10 GB (pages are limited to a maximum size of 200 inches)
If you receive an “out of RAM” error message or if Photoshop is running slowly, it could be caused by having too many open images. If you have several windows open, try closing some of them.
To reduce the amount of scratch disk space Photoshop uses, minimize the number of presets you keep loaded. Patterns and brush tips are some of the largest presets. Save presets you don’t require right now to a preset file, then remove them, and only load them when you need them.
To find out more about managing presets, see Presets.
Each time you change a document, Photoshop updates all the thumbnails visible in the Layers and Channels panels. This update can affect responsiveness when you’re rapidly painting, moving, or nudging layers. The more thumbnails visible, the greater this effect.
To minimize or disable these thumbnail previews, click the Panel menu and choose Panel Options. Select a smaller thumbnail size or select None, and then click OK.
If you don’t need to work with your PSD and PSB files in older versions of Photoshop or in applications that don’t support layers, you can turn off a file compatibility feature to speed up document saving:
Photoshop can perform many operations on 16-bit and 32-bit images. However, these images require more memory, scratch space, and time to process than 8-bit images.
To convert your image to 8 bits per channel, choose Image > Mode > 8 Bits/Channel.
Converting to 8 bits per channel deletes data from your image. Save a copy of the original 16-bit or 32-bit image before you convert to 8 bits per channel.
To speed font processing in Photoshop, turn off the font preview list by choosing Type > Font Preview Size > None.
The greater the image resolution, the more memory and disk space Photoshop requires to display, process, and print an image. Depending on your final output, higher image resolution does not necessarily provide higher final image quality, but it can slow performance, use additional scratch disk space, and slow printing. The optimal resolution for your images depends on how the images will be displayed or printed.
For images presented onscreen, think in terms of total pixel dimensions. To reduce the image dimensions of an image, choose Image > Image Size. In the Image Size dialog box, make sure that the Resample option is selected. Enter a new value for the Dimensions Width or Height (entering a value for one changes both).
For printed images, increasing resolution beyond about 360 DPI brings marginal if any benefits in most cases. If you produce many prints, experiment to find a resolution that gives you pleasing results. To reduce the resolution of an image, choose Image > Image Size. In the Image Size dialog box, select Resample. Change the Width and Height values to reflect the physical size of your printed document. Then, decrease the Resolution value, and click OK.
If you are going to increase the image resolution for printing rather than decrease it, perform this resolution increase as one of your last steps before printing the image. That way, you don’t have to process all this extra information in earlier steps.
You can improve system performance by freeing up unused memory and scratch disk space from Photoshop to make it available to other programs. To do so, choose one of these options:
- Edit > Purge > All
- Edit > Purge > Undo
- Hold down Option (macOS) or Alt (Windows) and choose About Photoshop
If other programs are actively trying to allocate or use the memory, freeing up memory in Photoshop will improve performance. Freeing up scratch disk space will be beneficial if you're out of space on a disk volume. If you free up significant memory or disk space, Photoshop will be slower the next time you open large files, while Photoshop allocates space.
If you want Photoshop to always use less memory, choose Edit > Preferences > Performance (Windows) or Photoshop > Preferences > Performance (macOS) and move the Memory Usage slider to the left.
See Adjust memory usage.
Activity monitors, task managers, and disk utilities may take several seconds to register the change. In fact, for some utilities, you may need to explicitly request the update.
The contents of the clipboard are often large if you’ve been copying and pasting data within large documents. And, those contents are of little use when you’re done pasting. To free up RAM being used by image data in the clipboard, choose Edit > Purge > Clipboard.
The Purge command cannot be undone.
The Filter Gallery allows you to test one or more filters on an image before applying the effects, which can save considerable time and memory.
Dragging layers or files is more efficient than copying and pasting them. Dragging bypasses the Clipboard and transfers data directly. Copying and pasting can potentially involve more data transfer and is much less efficient.
For added speed when exporting TIFF files, do not choose ZIP compression. (ZIP compression produces the smallest TIFF files, however.)
The Export Clipboard option causes Photoshop to make the contents of the clipboard available to other programs. If you copy large amounts of data in Photoshop, but won’t paste it into other applications, save time by turning off this option:
If you’re interested in modifying your current hardware setup (or perhaps if you’re buying a new system), use the following information to optimize it for Photoshop.
The speed of the computer’s central processing unit, or CPU, limits the processing speed of Photoshop.
Photoshop generally runs faster with more processor cores, although some features take greater advantage of the additional cores than others. However, you’ll get diminishing returns with multiple processor cores: The more cores you use, the less you get from each additional core. Therefore, Photoshop doesn’t run four times as fast on a computer with 16 processor cores as on a computer with four cores. For most users, the increase in performance that more than six cores provide doesn’t justify the increased cost.
If you are running Photoshop in a virtual environment, Photoshop's GPU use can cause performance issues. Virtual machines cannot access the GPU.
Photoshop uses random access memory (RAM) to process images. If Photoshop has insufficient memory, it uses hard-disk space, also known as a scratch disk, to process information. Accessing information in memory is faster than accessing information on a hard disk. Therefore, Photoshop is fastest when it can process all or most image information in RAM.
For instructions on how you can specify how much RAM to allocate to Photoshop, see Adjust memory usage.
A discrete, dedicated graphics card uses its own memory (VRAM), has greater processing power, and doesn't eat up RAM
Ultralight laptops and low end desktops, often use an integrated graphics card that uses less power to preserve battery and shares memory with your CPU.
Photoshop reads and writes image information to disk when your system doesn’t have enough RAM to contain all of it. The Efficiency indicator can help you determine whether getting a faster hard disk or solid-state disk would improve your performance. If the efficiency number is usually above 95%, spending money on a faster scratch disk has little benefit.
To improve Photoshop performance, use a disk with a fast data transfer rate. For example, use an internal hard disk or an external disk connected directly to your computer.
Network servers (hard disk accessed over a network) have slower data transfer rates and are not recommended for use with Photoshop.
To gain the greatest benefit from an SSD, use it as the scratch disk. Using it as a scratch disk gives you significant performance improvements if you have images that don’t fit entirely in RAM. For example, swapping tiles between RAM and an SSD is much faster than swapping between RAM and a hard disk.
If your SSD doesn’t have much free space (the scratch file grows bigger than can fit on the SSD), add a secondary or tertiary hard disk. (Add it after the SSD.) Make sure that these disks are selected as scratch disks in the Performance preferences.
Also, SSDs vary widely in performance, much more so than hard disks. Using an earlier, slower drive results in little improvement over a hard disk.
Adding RAM to improve performance is generally more cost effective than purchasing an SSD.
If the Efficiency indicator is already high, an SSD doesn’t improve performance. The lower the Efficiency indicator, the greater the improvement an SSD offers.
Fast RAID 0 arrays also make excellent scratch disks, especially if you use the array exclusively for your scratch disk.
Other open applications and startup items decrease the amount of memory available to Photoshop. To free up additional memory, quit unnecessary applications, startup items, and extensions.
From time to time, run Disk Cleanup to remove temporary files and any other files that are not being used.
Photoshop takes longer to read or write a fragmented file than one saved to a contiguous location.
Solid-state disks do not require defragmenting, because their performance doesn’t degrade significantly with normal levels of fragmentation.
Fragmentation is rarely a problem on macOS, unless you normally run with the drive nearly full.
Ensure that Photoshop is using the High Performance graphics card rather than lower powered Integrated graphics card for computers that have two graphics cards.
Changing these settings will use your battery more quickly.