Adobe Stock is a service that provides designers and businesses with access to millions of high-quality curated and royalty-free photos, videos, illustrations, vector graphics, 3D assets, and templates for all their creative projects. You can purchase Adobe Stock as a multi-asset subscription. Various subscription packages are available.
FAQ | Adobe Stock basics
- Adobe Stock User guide
- Search for assets
- Adobe Stock asset collections
- Integration and collaboration
- Common questions
Adobe Stock is a service that gives designers, marketers, creatives, video professionals, and others access to millions of high-quality, curated, royalty-free assets for all their creative projects. Assets types include photos, vectors, illustrations, templates, 3D assets, videos, motion graphics templates, and audio tracks.
The Adobe Stock navigation bar also lists additional Adobe Creative Cloud services – such as Adobe Fonts and Plug Ins. We’ve included links to these services to make it easier for our customers to discover more types of creative assets. FYI that these additional creative assets need to be separately licensed and are not included in Adobe Stock plans.
You can find Adobe Stock assets in multiple places across the Adobe Creative Cloud ecosystem.
Easily discover and license Adobe Stock assets on stock.adobe.com. You may also search for Adobe Stock assets from the Creative Cloud desktop application and the Creative Cloud home webpage. FYI you will be directed to the Adobe Stock website to license and download the assets.
You can also find Adobe Stock assets within your favorite Creative Cloud desktop apps — including Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and XD — so you can search, license, and add assets to your Creative Cloud Libraries. FYI you will need to have purchased a qualifying Adobe Stock plan before licensing an Adobe Stock asset to your Creative Cloud application.
Need help with starting a new project? Quickly get moving on your creative projects in Photoshop, Illustrator, and Adobe InDesign by downloading artist-designed templates from Adobe Stock right from the New Document dialog box.
With a royalty-free asset, the license fee is paid only once, and no additional payments are needed for more uses. Royalty-free assets are licensed for worldwide perpetual use, and other than editorial use content, you may use them for commercial, promotional, advertising, or merchandising purposes when you purchase the appropriate license.
Discover high-quality, royalty-free photos, videos, illustrations, vector graphics, 3D assets, design templates, motion graphics templates, and audio tracks on the Adobe Stock website.
Design assets — Jump-start your next design with Adobe Stock vectors, illustrations, and design templates. Learn more about design assets or explore vectors, illustrations, and templates on our website.
Motion and audio — Bring your stories to life with high-quality video, audio, and motion graphics assets. Learn more about motion and audio or explore stock videos, motion graphics templates, and stock audio on our website.
You can also discover our free collection of free photos, vectors, illustrations, videos, templates, and 3D assets. All free assets come with a commercial standard license, and you may use them for personal, business, or educational projects.
Also, the Adobe Stock navigation bar allows you to access the Adobe Fonts library included with your Creative Cloud subscription, and discover other Adobe Creative Cloud services that can be licensed separately such as plug-ins and Integrations.
All indemnified assets generated on Stock, Express and firefly.com will have a record in the Stock License History page.
Assets imported from Google Bard are not eligible for indemnification. This is because Google Bard allows image editing before it obtains the CAI signature, which means that Adobe cannot vouch for the contents of the output.
Indemnification isn't limited to the creator. If a user without an indemnification FI creates a Firefly asset in Express, and the project is exported by a different user with an indemnification FI, the second user will automatically be indemnified for that asset.
Adobe Stock file types vary based on the asset.
Photos (including Editorial and Premium) and illustrations are available in JPEG format. PNG file types with transparent backgrounds are also available on Stock.
Vectors are available in AI, EPS, or JPEG format, depending on the download setting you choose when you license the asset.
HD videos are available in various formats including MOV. 4K videos are available in various formats as well, and all 4K videos are also available in HD. Whenever possible, we try to deliver the original file for the best possible quality and experience.
3D assets are available as model (OBJ), light (EXR or HDR), and material (MDL) files. These file types are supported in many 3D apps.
Design templates are available for Photoshop in PSDT format, for Illustrator in AIT format, and for InDesign in INDT format. You can download them on the Adobe Stock website or discover them in the New Document dialog box inside your apps.
Motion graphics templates are available in MOGRT format for use in Adobe Premiere Pro.
Explore the stunning assets available on the Adobe Stock website.
We offer Adobe Stock images at the highest available resolution. While photo resolution depends on the camera used for capture, most assets can accommodate high-quality printed output up to 300 dpi. You can print vector files in all formats without loss in quality.
Adobe Stock was formerly known as Fotolia. After 14 years in business, Fotolia transitioned its members to Adobe Stock on a voluntary basis to offer them a better, more streamlined service and deeper integration with Creative Cloud apps.
If you or your client received a claim or complaint regarding the use of Adobe Stock content that you licensed, please notify Adobe immediately. So that we can properly investigate, please send as much detail as possible to firstname.lastname@example.org, including: your Adobe or Fotolia account ID; the File ID of the assets at issue, the applicable Stock license information (such as a screenshot of license history), and any documentation such as a copy of the claim letter and examples of the use complained about.
Licensing and asset types
Images and templates
Illustrative Editorial assets are marked for "Editorial use only. The Illustrative Editorial collection focuses on conceptual imagery that uses real brands and products to convey strong ideas. Illustrative Editorial content spans photos, illustrations, and vectors and includes imagery that features popular consumer brands.
Assets designated for “Editorial use only” are marked “Editorial only” when you hover over them in the search results and under the “Restriction” section in the image information. You may not use these assets for commercial purposes, such as in advertisements or on product packaging. Other restrictions apply. See the summary of editorial use restrictions.
The Adobe Stock Premium collection contains millions of images from the portfolios of some of the world’s top photographers, illustrators, and agencies. Our community of Premium photography contributors seeks to tell powerful stories that provide authentic cultural and geo-localized insights as well as accurate representation of communities.
Premium collection contributors’ photos showcase extensive commercial knowledge and skill, allowing you to save time and budget on expensive photoshoots, difficult-to-get model releases, and prolonged post-production editing.
Yes, you can download assets from the Adobe Stock Premium collection in two sizes — small and large. Price points differ depending on file resolution.
All Adobe Stock Premium collection images include an enhanced license, which allows unlimited print runs. However, if you want an extended license to create derivate products for resale (such as coffee mugs, t-shirts, or template files), you need an Adobe Stock Enterprise account. Learn more about license terms.
Adobe Stock offers digitally illustrated artwork (non-photos) as vectors or illustrations.
As rasterized images, illustrations can include a wider variety of textures, styles, and artwork than vectors, and you can download them as JPEGs. From hand-drawn artwork to textures and digital scenes, Adobe Stock illustrations encompass various decorative elements and design techniques and styles.
Adobe Stock templates are optimized for Creative Cloud and may not be compatible with older versions of Creative Suite that are no longer supported by Adobe.
Video and audio
You can use Adobe Stock videos to fill the gap in a storyline, provide an establishing shot, or match existing footage across a wide selection of content themes including lifestyle, business, cinematic aerials, sports, and action footage, animation, and more.
Adobe Stock videos are collected from dynamic artists around the world as well as high-production video brands and agencies such as GoPro, Hero Images, and The Ocean Agency.
Streamline your workflow and easily search and license videos directly from Creative Cloud apps such as Premiere Pro and Adobe After Effects. Learn more about Adobe Stock videos.
All Adobe Stock videos are available in 4K, HD, or similar frame sizes, and they come with an enhanced license. The enhanced license has no limitation on how many people can view the video.
With an enhanced license, you may:
Use the asset with all the rights granted in the standard license.
Reproduce the asset in your creative work beyond the 500,000 copy/viewer restriction.
With an enhanced license, you may not:
Distribute the stand-alone file.
Create merchandise, templates, or other products for resale or distribution where the primary value of the product is associated with the asset itself. For example, you can’t use the asset to create a poster, t-shirt, or coffee mug that someone would buy specifically because of the asset printed on it.
You can purchase videos in two ways:
Purchase on demand if you must download videos one at a time.
Purchase a credit pack if you plan to download multiple video assets either at once or over the course of time. You can save money by purchasing videos with a credit pack.
All Adobe Stock audio tracks are licensed royalty-free, so you may use them as many times as you need in any project, anywhere in the world, subject to the license restrictions. This means that even if you cancel your account, you may still use the licensed track in your project.
You can license Adobe Stock audio in the following ways:
Through a subscription: Subscriptions allow you to license audio tracks with a standard license. In addition, you can use the subscription to license standard images (that is, photos, vectors, illustrations), templates, and 3D assets.
Through a credit pack: You can purchase an audio standard or extended license using a credit pack. You can buy a standard audio license with 1 credit and an extended audio license with 20 credits.
To purchase a subscription or credit packs, visit the Adobe Stock plans page.
If you have an existing Adobe Stock subscription or credit allotment, you can use it to license an audio track. That means:
You can purchase audio standard licenses for music tracks using the same subscription you’ve used to purchase standard image licenses.
You can purchase audio standard or extended licenses using the same credit pack you’ve used to purchase extended image licenses, videos, or Premium assets.
If you’re new to Adobe Stock, the best way to license audio is with a subscription that offers a free trial.
Enhance your video creations with dynamic, pre-built Adobe Stock motion graphics templates, which include title sequences, overlay graphics, and data visualizations.
Motion graphics templates are customizable and allow you to change color, text, and the layout of animated graphics. Find what you need, whether it’s a lower-third for a documentary or an animation for a YouTube vlog.
Easily search for various motion graphic templates depending on what you need for your video, including:
Social media graphics
Streamline your workflow and easily search and license motion graphics templates directly from Creative Cloud apps such as Premiere Pro and After Effects. Explore our motion graphics templates.
With Adobe Stock royalty-free audio licenses, you may use any licensed music track as many times as you like, for as long as you like, anywhere in the world. Here are the details:
The Adobe Stock audio standard license covers most common uses such as social media, websites, digital ads, and corporate presentations.
The Adobe Stock audio extended license is required for film, broadcast, SVOD, apps, games, and point of sale. Audio tracks with extended licenses are only available to Enterprise customers at this time.
You may use Adobe Stock audio in a variety of ways with a standard or extended license — in training materials, online ads, wedding films, paid advertising, social media, and more.
If you plan to use Adobe Stock audio in film, broadcast, SVOD, apps, games, or point of sale, you must purchase an audio extended license.
We’re here to help you. With each licensed track, you get a license validation code. However, when you post a video that includes Adobe Stock audio tracks, you may receive a YouTube copyright claim. You must submit an Adobe Stock license code for each piece of music licensed. See details.
You can access Adobe Stock audio by going to the Essential Sound panel in Premiere Pro.
Click the Windows menu and select Essential Sound. Or click the Audio tab at the top of your Premiere Pro window and see the Essential Sound panel on the right.
Click the Browse tab, and then explore the available tracks.
Use the filters to specify mood, genre, tempo, and whether you want instrumental tracks. Enter keywords to search by instrument and more.
To preview a track, click the Play button or the waveform of any track.
No. Audio available through Adobe Stock can only be licensed with an Adobe Stock subscription or credit pack.
You can license Adobe Stock music tracks directly within Premiere Pro or on the Adobe Stock website via a subscription or credit pack. Adobe Stock music tracks with standard licenses are available as part of an Adobe Stock mixed assets subscription that starts with the first month free. Learn more about pricing and plans.
Bring your designs to life with an amazing collection of 3D models, materials, and lights. The Adobe Stock 3D collection is built with the highest aesthetic and technical standards in mind, and includes:
3D models: Customize the style, look, and scale of any 3D model in your scene.
3D materials: Instantly change the visual appearance of any 3D model by choosing from a vast selection of materials.
3D lights: Illuminate your scene with real-world lighting, reflections, and a background image.
Adobe Stock is natively integrated into Adobe Dimension, so you can search thousands of free and paid Adobe Stock 3D assets to find the perfect one without leaving the app. You can also use Adobe Stock 3D assets with Adobe 3D and AR apps like Substance Suite and Adobe Aero.
Adobe stock 3D models, lights, and materials are optimized for use in Dimension. However, there are certain factors to consider when using these assets in other third-party 3D apps.
Models in non-Adobe 3D apps:
Any app that can import OBJ files can load the models. However, the models may not look the same as the thumbnails on the Adobe Stock website if they’re loaded in an environment that doesn’t support MDL 1.3 or later.
Each model has an MTL file that contains some shader information for apps that don’t support MDL. Depending on the app’s importer, some manual texture hookups may be required.
For best fidelity, these models require a rendering engine that supports MDL 1.3 or later.
Models in Dimension:
When using these models in Dimension, there may be minor differences between how the model appears on Adobe Stock and how it appears in the app. These differences are anticipated and will always result in an improved 3D experience.
Free collection assets
The Adobe Stock free collection contains free photos, vectors, illustrations, videos, design templates, motion graphics templates, and 3D assets. You can discover this hand-curated collection by clicking Free in the stock.adobe.com navigation bar. Explore Adobe Stock free assets.
If you’re logged in to Adobe Stock with your Adobe ID, you can simply click the blue button to download your free asset.
If you have an Adobe ID but are not logged in, please sign in with your Adobe ID and then click the blue button to download your free asset.
If you don’t have an Adobe ID, please follow the process to create one and then click the blue button to download your free asset.
When you download a free collection asset by clicking the blue button, you receive a royalty-free commercial-use license for that asset.
Free collection assets have the following licenses:
Photos, vectors, and illustrations: Standard license
Videos, templates, and 3D assets: Enhanced license.
All Adobe Stock licenses are perpetual, so you may use them as many times as you need in your project, anywhere in the world, subject to the license restrictions. This means that even if you cancel your account, you may still use the licensed asset in your project.
Here are some examples of how you may use photos, vectors, and illustrations from the Adobe Stock free collection:
Unlimited views on the web, mobile, or social media
Marketing collateral printed up to 500,000 times
A live, recorded, or digital production if the expected audience is fewer than 500,000 viewers
Here are some examples of how you may use videos, templates, and 3D assets from the Adobe Stock free collection:
Use the asset with all the rights granted in the standard license.
Reproduce the asset beyond the 500,000 copy/viewer restriction.
Yes, there’s a limit on how many free assets you can download in a 24-hour period. We developed the daily download limit with many common use cases in mind and you can always increase your daily download limit by purchasing a subscription.
The hundreds of thousands of assets available in the Adobe Stock free collection provide only a fraction of the assets that are available with an Adobe Stock paid subscription.
The free collection’s emphasis is on breadth, not depth.
Generative AI content
Yes, generative AI images that meet Adobe Stock’s submission guidelines can be found in the Adobe Stock collection. These images are offered under the same license terms as other sources of content.
Adobe believes in empowering its contributor community to use various tools as part of their creative process so long as the content submitted to Adobe Stock complies with Adobe Stock’s submission guidelines. In addition, Adobe Stock is engaging with the contributor community to develop guidelines and best practices related to the use of generative AI tools in creative workflows.
Adobe Stock’s generative AI content can be used for the same projects as our other Adobe Stock images. For example, if you purchase a standard license for a generative AI illustration in accordance with the standard licensing agreement, you can use it on the web an unlimited amount of times and for print runs with up to 500,000 impressions. Please see the overview of our license terms, as well as the Adobe Stock Terms & Conditions for more information on licensing rights and restrictions.
Adobe Stock will uphold its current moderation policies for this content. Also, we will continue to maintain our high bar for technical quality, ensuring generative AI content on our platform meets our standards for image resolution.
In the unlikely event that a claim arises regarding a Stock asset, Adobe provides its customers with IP indemnification subject to the Adobe Stock terms and conditions (see Stock’s standard terms for more information).
Generative AI is a type of artificial intelligence that can translate ordinary words and other inputs into extraordinary results. While the conversation around this technology has centered on AI images and art generation, generative AI can do much more than generate static images from text prompts. With a few simple words and the right AI generator, anyone can create videos, documents, and digital experiences as well as rich images and art. AI art generators can also be useful for producing creative building blocks like brushes, vectors, and textures that can add to or form the foundation of pieces of content.
Adobe Firefly is a standalone web application available at firefly.adobe.com. It offers new ways to ideate, create, and communicate while significantly improving creative workflows using generative AI. In addition to the Firefly web app, Adobe also has the broader Firefly family of creative generative AI models, along with features powered by Firefly in Adobe’s flagship apps and Adobe Stock
Firefly is the natural extension of the technology Adobe has produced over the past 40 years, driven by the belief that people should be empowered to bring their ideas into the world precisely as they imagine them.
Generative credits provide priority processing of generative AI content across features powered by Firefly in the applications to which you are entitled. Generative credit counts reset each month.
Adobe Stock paid subscriptions include monthly generative AI creations with standard resolution images* powered by Adobe Firefly. After the plan-specific number of generative credits is reached, you can keep taking generative AI actions, but your use of generative AI features may be slower.
Adobe Stock free plans receive a plan-specific number of monthly generative AI creations of standard resolution images* powered by Adobe Firefly. After the plan-specific number of generative credits is reached, you can upgrade to a paid plan to continue creating assets with features powered by Firefly or simply wait until credits reset the next month.
* Standard resolution imagery is up to 2000 x 2000 pixels. Usage rates may vary. Plans are subject to change.
Learn more about generative credits.
The consumption of generative credits is based on a combination of variables, including the generative AI action you take, and the computational cost of the generative AI feature used.
Examples of actions where you are debited generative credits:
- Select Generate in Text to Image
- Select Generate in Expand Image
No, generative credits do not roll over to the next month because the cloud-based computational resources are fixed and assume a certain allocation per user in a given month. Your generative credit balance will reset to your allocated amount on a monthly basis.
Firefly is bringing the power of generative AI to global audiences by supporting over 100 languages for text prompt inputs, as well as localizing the Firefly website for more than 20 languages, starting with Japanese, French, German, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, Korean, Italian, Danish, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Chinese Simplified, and Chinese Traditional.
We currently support prompts in over 100 languages using machine translation to English provided by Microsoft Translator. Because of the nuances of each language, it’s possible certain generations based on translated prompts may be inaccurate or unexpected. We are working hard to identify and resolve any issues. To report incorrect translation results, hover over a generated image and Select the Report tool.
Yes, you must have an active stock subscription or a valid credit pack to download generated images.
No, Adobe Stock credits cannot be used to generate content using Firefly-powered features. Only generative credits are used to generate content using Firefly-powered features.
Adobe Stock credits are used to license content from the Stock website as defined in the Adobe Stock Additional Terms or your customer agreement, as applicable.
When you want to download a generated image, you will consume some of your Adobe Stock subscription credit quota. While generative credits are used for content creation, Adobe Stock subscription credits are used when downloading generated content.
IP indemnification is protection against legal claims that your Firefly output violates someone else’s intellectual property rights, subject to the terms and conditions of the customer agreement. You can see which Firefly features are available for IP indemnification here. Which features are covered for you may vary by plan.
- Enterprise customers may obtain IP indemnification for the listed features under specific Adobe offers. Contact your Adobe account team or click here to learn more.
- Adobe Stock Individual, Creative Cloud Team, and Creative Cloud Enterprise customers with sufficient Stock credits may obtain IP indemnification for Text to Image outputs downloaded from the Stock Generate page. This does not apply to plans that provide unlimited downloads (e.g., Pro Edition). Terms apply.
Billing and payments
It's best to purchase a subscription if you regularly download images with a standard license. Your Adobe Stock subscription lets you download photos, vectors, illustrations, design templates, music tracks, and 3D assets. It’s our most popular option for frequent stock downloaders.
It’s best to purchase a credit pack if you must download assets not available in a subscription such as videos, motion graphics templates, certain 3D asset types, Premium photos, or Editorial collection assets or to obtain a more permissive license (For example, extended license).
Credit packs let you license Adobe Stock assets flexibly and cost-effectively. They’re are similar to buying tokens at an arcade: you save money by buying a stack of tokens, and then different games cost different numbers of tokens. To purchase a credit pack, log on to the Adobe Stock plans page.
Credits expire 12 months after purchase (6 months if you reside in Japan).
No. All you need to license content from Adobe Stock is an Adobe ID, which you can quickly create free of charge.
Yes, you can use and benefit from Adobe Stock whether you’re a Creative Cloud member or not.
If you’d like to purchase a video, Premium image, or other Adobe Stock asset that isn’t available in your subscription, you can purchase a credit pack or license the asset on-demand. Learn more about our plans. Audio assets and core images cannot be licensed on demand.
The 3-images/month plan, 10-images/month plan, and 40-images/month plan include rollover benefits, which ensure unused subscription licenses continue to be available in your account.
You can roll over 36-480 unused licenses month to month, depending on your plan, but if you cancel your subscription you'll lose any unused licenses.
Any unused rollover licenses cannot be used once your subscription has been canceled.
Yes. If you’re a new Adobe customer, we’ll create an account for you when you make your first purchase. You’ll get an email with a receipt for your purchase and a link to set your account password. You must set your password within 72 hours of receiving that email or the link will expire. If that happens, you can go through the Forgot Password workflow to get set up.
After your initial purchase, you can make more purchases on Adobe Stock for an hour without setting your password. During this time, you won’t be able to log in to account management or any other Adobe services until you’ve set the password. When the hour is up, you’ll be logged out and will need to set your password from the email to log in again.
Credit packs let you license Adobe Stock assets in a flexible and cost-effective way. When you purchase a credit pack, you have one year (six months in Japan) to redeem your credits to license specific content such as Premium images, videos, Editorial collection content, and other asset types. Credit packs are similar to buying tokens at an arcade: You save money by buying a stack of tokens, and then different games cost different numbers of tokens.
For more information, see our FAQ.
We’re sorry to see you go, but we understand that stock needs can change. We also offer many subscription options or credit packs if your subscription no longer fits your needs.
To change or cancel a standalone Adobe Stock subscription, please do the following:
- Sign in to your Adobe account.
- Under Plan information, click Manage plan for the plan you want to change.
- Under Plan & payment, click Cancel plan and move through the cancellation flow.
To change or cancel Adobe Stock from your Creative Cloud membership, please do the following:
- Sign in to your Adobe account.
- Under Plan information, click Manage plan for the plan you want to change.
- Under Plan & payment, click Change plan.
- Under Creative Cloud All Apps, select your storage and billing options and click Select.
- On the confirmation page, review the terms of the plan, and then click Confirm.
Adobe Stock offers a range of price points for templates and 3D assets, and some included in the free collection. If you’d like to see templates or 3D content within a specific price segment, refine your search results by applying a price filter on the left of your search results page.
Adobe Stock and Creative Cloud
You can open images and videos from the Adobe Stock website inside many Creative Cloud apps with a single click. You can also save Adobe Stock assets directly to your Creative Cloud Libraries so they’re immediately available in most of your Creative Cloud desktop and mobile apps.
You can also launch Adobe Stock from within the Libraries panel in Creative Cloud apps such as Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, Premiere Pro, After Effects, XD, Dimension, and Adobe Dreamweaver. You can also license watermarked previews of Adobe Stock content directly from the Libraries panel in the desktop apps. Learn more.
Adobe Stock is natively integrated with most Creative Cloud apps, including Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, XD, Premiere Pro, Premiere Rush, After Effects, Adobe Spark, and Dimension. You can also save images directly to your Creative Cloud Libraries for instant access across apps. The Creative Cloud Libraries feature is currently supported in Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, After Effects, Premiere Pro, Premiere Rush, XD, Dreamweaver, Illustrator Draw, Photoshop Sketch, and Adobe Comp.
In Photoshop, Illustrator, and InDesign, templates from Adobe Stock are also available from right within the New Document dialog box. These templates, designed to jump-start your creative projects, come in PSDT, AIT, and INDT formats. Once you license and download a template, you can build on it just as you’d work with any other Photoshop, Illustrator, or InDesign document.
You can launch Adobe Stock from the Creative Cloud Libraries panel in these applications:
- Premiere Pro
- After Effects
Adobe Stock assets are available as JPG, PNG, AI, EPS, and SVG files.
As a Creative Cloud member you receive a number of benefits, including seamless integration with your favorite apps like Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, and Premiere Pro. You can access the Adobe Stock assets you’ve saved to your Libraries directly inside your apps, and you can search in-app and even license directly in-app. Learn more.
You can share the licensed asset with employees or subcontractors, provided that they follow all the license restrictions.
If you transfer the asset or a derivative work to a client, then you must purchase a second license if they intend to use it for the benefit of another client. Learn more about licensing terms.
Adobe Stock is natively integrated with most Creative Cloud apps, including Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, XD, Premiere Pro, Premiere Rush, After Effects, Adobe Spark, and Dimension. If Adobe Stock is not natively integrated with your Creative Cloud app, Adobe Stock assets can easily be downloaded from the website to your computer and then opened in your Creative Cloud app.