Packaging features, such as the “Package” found in Adobe InDesign and Adobe Illustrator, are often used to send documents for print output. Fonts are usually included with a package to ensure that the document fonts are always available.
Most existing font license agreements – including the standard EULA for the Adobe Type Library and Font Folio – do not cover sending font files to third parties, unless that third party has their own license to the same font. (A newer version of the Adobe EULA for Fontspring purchases does allow you to send a copy of fonts to printers for output; refer to your specific EULA version to see what it allows.)
Similarly, the Typekit terms of service do not allow copying or moving the files that have been synced from Typekit.
Since packaging is not a supported workflow, each person using the file will need to have the necessary fonts available on their computer, licensed via their own Typekit subscription, or as a traditional desktop purchase. Print bureaus will be able to access the fonts in the same way: either through their own Typekit plan or by purchasing the font from the foundry or an authorized reseller.
The Typekit terms of service allow synced font data to be embedded in PDF and other digital documents. Creating a PDF file is, in most cases, the best and most reliable way to ensure typographic fidelity in documents destined for print output.