User Guide Cancel


  1. InDesign User Guide
  2. Get to know InDesign
    1. Introduction to InDesign
      1. What's New in InDesign
      2. System requirements
      3. Common questions
      4. Use Creative Cloud libraries
    2. Workspace
      1. Workspace basics
      2. Customize your workspace in InDesign
      3. Toolbox
      4. Set preferences
      5. Properties panel
      6. Touch workspace
      7. Default keyboard shortcuts
      8. Undo edits and manage History panel
      9. Document recovery and undo
    3. Generative AI
      1. Text to Image
      2. Generative Expand
      3. Generative AI FAQ
  3. Create and layout documents
    1. Documents and pages
      1. Create documents
      2. Work with parent pages
      3. Work with document pages
      4. Set page size, margins, and bleed
      5. Work with files and templates
      6. Convert PDFs to InDesign files in InDesign (Beta)
      7. Create book files
      8. Add basic page numbering
      9. Number pages, chapters, and sections
      10. Convert QuarkXPress and PageMaker documents
      11. Share content
      12. Understand a basic managed-file workflow
      13. Save documents
    2. Grids
      1. Grids
      2. Format grids
    3. Layout aids
      1. Rulers
      2. Align and distribute objects using rulers
      3. Measure objects using the Measure tool
  4. Add content
    1. Text
      1. Add text to frames
      2. Threading text
      3. South-East Asian Scripts
      4. Arabic and Hebrew features in InDesign
      5. Create type on a path
      6. Bullets and numbering
      7. Glyphs and special characters
      8. Text composition
      9. Text variables
      10. Generate QR codes
      11. Edit text
      12. Align text
      13. Wrap text around objects
      14. Anchored objects
      15. Linked content
      16. Format paragraphs
      17. Format characters
    2. Typography
      1. Using fonts in InDesign
      2. Kerning and tracking
      3. Scale and skew type
      4. Apply color effects to type
    3. Format text
      1. Format text
      2. Auto Style text
      3. Work with Style Packs
      4. Tabs and indents
    4. Review text
      1. Track and review changes
      2. Add editorial notes in InDesign
      3. Import PDF comments
    5. Spell check and language dictionaries
      1. Check spelling, autocorrect, and dynamic spelling
      2. Create, add, and manage dictionaries and words
      3. Change dictionary preferences
      4. Duden dictionary
    6. Add references
      1. Create a table of contents
      2. Footnotes
      3. Create an index
      4. Endnotes
      5. Captions
    7. Styles
      1. Paragraph and character styles
      2. Map, export, and manage styles
      3. Object styles
      4. Drop caps and nested styles
      5. Work with styles
      6. Leading
    8. Tables
      1. Format tables
      2. Create tables
      3. Table and Cell styles
      4. Select and edit tables
      5. Table strokes and fills
    9. Interactivity
      1. Hyperlinks
      2. Dynamic PDF documents
      4. Buttons
      5. Forms
      6. Animation
      7. Cross-references
      8. Structure PDFs
      9. Page transitions
      10. Movies and sounds
    10. Graphics
      1. Understand paths and shapes
      2. Draw with the Pencil tool
      3. Draw with the Pen tool
      4. Apply line (stroke) settings 
      5. Compound paths and shapes
      6. Edit paths
      7. Clipping paths
      8. Change corner appearance
      9. Frames and objects
      10. Align and distribute objects
      11. Linked and embedded graphics
      12. Integrate AEM assets
    11. Color and transparency
      1. Apply color
      2. Use colors from imported graphics
      3. Work with swatches
      4. Mix inks
      5. Tints
      6. Understand spot and process colors
      7. Blend colors
      8. Gradients
      9. Flatten transparent artwork
      10. Add transparency effects
  5. Find and replace
    1. Find and replace text
    2. Find and replace fonts
    3. Find and replace glyphs
    4. Find and replace using GREP expressions and queries
    5. Find and replace objects
    6. Find and replace colors
    7. Search options to find and replace
  6. Share
    1. Save and access cloud documents
    2. Organize, manage, and share cloud documents
    3. View and manage versions in cloud documents
    4. Common questions about InDesign cloud documents
    5. Share and collaborate        
    6. Share for Review
    7. Review a shared InDesign document
    8. Manage feedback 
  7. Publish
    1. Place, export, and publish
      1. Publish online
      2. Publish online dashboard
      3. Copy, insert graphics
      4. Export content for EPUB
      5. Adobe PDF options
      6. Export content to HTML
      7. Export to Adobe PDF
      8. Export to JPEG format
      9. Export HTML
      10. DPS and AEM Mobile overview
      11. Supported File Formats
      12. Export and import User Settings
    2. Printing
      1. Print booklets
      2. Printer's marks and bleeds
      3. Print documents
      4. Inks, separation, and screen frequency
      5. Overprinting
      6. Create PostScript and EPS files
      7. Preflight files before handoff
      8. Print thumbnails and oversized documents
      9. Prepare PDFs for service providers
      10. Prepare to print separations
  8. Extend InDesign
    1. Automation
      1. Data merge
      2. Plug-ins
      3. Capture extension in InDesign
      4. Scripting
  9. Troubleshooting
    1. Fixed issues
    2. Known issues
    3. Crash on launch
    4. Preference folder read-only issue
    5. Troubleshoot file issues
    6. Unable to export InDesign file to PDF
    7. InDesign document recovery

Create endnotes

An endnote consists of two linked parts: the endnote reference number that appears in source text, and the endnote text that appears in a new frame at the end of the document. There is an adornment at the bottom left corner of the endnote frame.

You can create endnotes or import them from Word or documents. Endnotes are automatically numbered as they are added to a document. You can control the numbering style, appearance, and layout of endnotes. Also, the numbering auto-adjusts based on the rearrangements of the endnotes in the text. You can add endnotes in a table as well.

Endnote icon at the bottom left corner of an endnote frame

Follow these steps to create endnotes:

  1. Place the insertion point where you want the endnote reference number to appear.

  2. Do one of the following:

    • Right-click and select Insert Endnote.
    • Choose Type > Insert Endnote.
  3. Type the endnote text.


When the insertion point is in an endnote, you can do one of the following to return to where you were typing:

  • Right-click and select Go To Endnote Reference.
  • Choose Type > Go To Endnote Reference.

Import endnotes from Word documents

You can import endnotes from a word document having endnotes using Microsoft Word Import Options. The option to import endnotes is enabled by default.

Import endnotes from Word documents

  1. Choose File > Place.

  2. Select the Word document that you want to import.

  3. Click Open.

All the endnotes are imported and added in a new text frame.


You can import multiple Word documents at the same time. Endnotes of all the documents are imported in a single text frame, if the Scope is set to Document.

Change endnote numbering and layout

To make changes to endnote numbering and layout, do one of the following:

  • Choose Type > Document Endnote Options
  • Click on the adornment  in the bottom left corner of the endnote frame

Changes you make affect existing endnotes and all new ones. The following options appear in the Endnote Options dialog box:

Endnote options

Endnote Header

Endnote Title:

Enter the title for the endnotes frame.

Paragraph Style:

Choose a paragraph style that formats the endnote title. The menu displays the paragraph styles available in the Paragraph Styles panel. By default, the [Basic Paragraph] style is used. The [Basic Paragraph] style may not have the same appearance as the default font settings for the document.



Choose the numbering style for endnote reference numbers.

Start At:

Specify the number used for the first endnote in the story. The Start At option is especially useful for documents in a book. Endnote numbering is not continued across documents in a book.


If you have multiple stories or text frame in a document with continued page numbering, select Continuous to start the endnote numbering in each story to continue where the last story ends. Select Restart Every Story to start each story in a document with the same Start At number.  

Endnote Reference Number In Text


This option determines the appearance of the endnote reference number, which is superscript by default. If you prefer to format the number using a character style (such as a character style that includes OpenType superscript settings), choose Apply Normal, and specify the character style.

Character Style:

Choose a character style to format the endnote reference number. For example, instead of using superscript, select a character style at a normal position with an elevated baseline. The menu displays the character styles available in the Character Styles panel.

Endnote Formatting

Paragraph Style:

Choose a paragraph style that formats the endnote text for all endnotes in the document. The menu displays the paragraph styles available in the Paragraph Styles panel. By default, the [Basic Paragraph] style is used. The [Basic Paragraph] style may not have the same appearance as the default font settings for the document.


The separator determines the white space that appears between the endnote number and the start of the endnote text. To change the separator, first select or delete the existing separator, and then choose a new separator. You can include multiple characters. To insert white-space characters, use the appropriate metacharacter, such as ^m for em space.

Positioning Options:


Select this option to determine how endnotes are maintained for a given document. Select Story to create a different endnote frame for each story. Select Document to have one endnote frame for entire document. This option can also be used to change the scope.

Endnote Frame:

Select this option to determine how a new endnote frame is created when an endnote is inserted. Select On A New Page to create the endnote frame on a new page for the defined scope. Select Load The Place Cursor to load the place cursor on inserting the first endnote for the defined scope. The place gun can be placed anywhere in the document and all the endnotes within that scope are added to this frame only.


Show In:

Select this option to show prefixes or suffixes in the endnote reference, the endnote text, or both. This option is especially useful for placing endnotes within characters, such as [1].  


Prefixes appear before the number, such as [1.Type a character, or characters, or select an option for Prefix. To select special characters, click the icon next to the Prefix control to display a menu.


Suffixes appear after the number, such as 1].Type a character, or characters, or select an option for Suffix. To select special
characters, click the icon next to the Suffix control to display a menu.

Work with endnote text

As you edit endnote text, note the following:

  • Endnotes are created in a new frame having an adornment  at the bottom left corner of the frame. Clicking on the adornment opens the Endnote Options dialog box.
  • The endnote frame cannot be threaded to any other story.
  • Endnotes in the endnote frame are indicated with Endnote Markers. Text, such as heading, can be typed in the endnote frame outside these markers. This extra content does not belong to any endnote.
  • You can cut endnote frame and paste it anywhere in order to move the endnote frame within the document.
  • Deleting the endnote reference marker deletes the entire endnote text corresponding to it. Similarly, deleting the endnote text deletes its reference marker.
  • Deleting entire endnote frame deletes all the corresponding endnote references.
  • Deleting all the endnote references deletes all the endnote text. Text outside the endnote markers is not deleted.
  • You can select and apply character and paragraph formatting to endnote text. You can also select and change the appearance of the endnote reference number, but the recommended method is using the Document Endnote Options dialog box.
  • When you cut or copy text that includes the endnote reference number, the endnote text is also added to the clipboard. If you copy the text to a different document, the endnotes in that text use the characteristics of the new document’s numbering and layout appearance.
  • If you clear overrides and character styles on a paragraph that includes an endnote reference marker, the footnote reference numbers lose the attributes you applied in the Document Endnote Options dialog box.

Convert footnotes and endnotes

To convert footnotes to endnotes and endnotes to footnotes in your document:

  1. Choose Type > Convert Footnote and Endnote.

  2. Do one of the following:

    • Choose Footnote to Endnote to convert footnotes to endnotes.
    • Choose Endnote to Footnote to convert endnotes to footnotes.
    Convert footnotes and endnotes

  3. Select one of the following from the Scope dropdown:

    Document: If you want to convert all the footnotes or endnotes in your document.
    Selection: If you want to convert only the footnotes or endnotes from your selection.

  4. Click Convert.

Delete endnotes

To delete an endnote, select the endnote reference number that appears in the text, and then press Backspace or Delete. If you delete only the endnote text, the endnote reference number and endnote structure remain.


Get help faster and easier

New user?

Adobe MAX 2024

Adobe MAX
The Creativity Conference

Oct 14–16 Miami Beach and online

Adobe MAX

The Creativity Conference

Oct 14–16 Miami Beach and online

Adobe MAX 2024

Adobe MAX
The Creativity Conference

Oct 14–16 Miami Beach and online

Adobe MAX

The Creativity Conference

Oct 14–16 Miami Beach and online