Photoshop offers a variety of tools, filters, and masks that give you fine control over image sharpness (or blur).
Sharpening enhances the definition of edges in an image. Whether your images come from a digital camera or a scanner, most images can benefit from sharpening. The degree of sharpening needed varies depending on the quality of the digital camera or scanner. Keep in mind that sharpening cannot correct a severely blurred image.
Tips for better sharpening:
Sharpen your image on a separate layer so that you can resharpen it later to output to a different medium.
If you sharpen your image on a separate layer, set the layer’s blending mode to Luminosity to avoid color shifts along edges.
Sharpening increases image contrast. If you find that highlights or shadows are clipped after you sharpen, use the layer blending controls (if you sharpen a separate layer) to prevent sharpening in highlights and shadows. See Specify a tonal range for blending layers.
Reduce image noise before sharpening so that you don’t intensify the noise.
Sharpen your image multiple times in small amounts. Sharpen the first time to correct blur caused by capturing your image (scanning it or taking it with your digital camera). After you’ve color corrected and sized your image, sharpen it again (or a copy of it) to add the appropriate amount of sharpening for your output medium.
If possible, judge your sharpening by outputting it to the final medium. The amount of sharpening needed varies among output media.
Use the Unsharp Mask (USM) filter or the Smart Sharpen filter for better control when sharpening your images. Although Photoshop also has the Sharpen, Sharpen Edges, and Sharpen More filter options, these filters are automatic and do not provide controls and options.
You can sharpen your entire image or just a portion using a selection or mask. Because the Unsharp Mask and Smart Sharpen filters can be applied to only one layer at a time, you might need to merge layers or flatten your file to sharpen all image layers in a multilayered file.
The name Unsharp Mask comes from a darkroom technique used in traditional film‑based photography. The filter sharpens images rather than the opposite.
The Smart Sharpen filter has sharpening controls not available with the Unsharp Mask filter. You can set the sharpening algorithm or control the amount of sharpening that occurs in shadow and highlight areas.
Choose Filter > Sharpen > Smart Sharpen.
Sets the amount of sharpening. A higher value increases the contrast between edge pixels, giving the appearance of greater sharpness.
Determines the number of pixels surrounding the edge pixels affected by the sharpening. The greater the radius value, the wider the edge effects and the more obvious the sharpening.
(Photoshop only) Reduce unwanted noise while keeping important edges unaffected.
Sets the sharpening algorithm used to sharpen the image.
Sets the direction of motion for the Motion Blur option of the Remove control.
(CS6 only) Processes the file slowly for a more accurate removal of blurring.
Adjusts the amount of sharpening in the highlights or shadows.
Controls the range of tones in the shadows or highlights that are modified. Move the slider to the left or right to decrease or increase the Tonal Width value. Smaller values restrict the adjustments to only the darker regions for shadow correction and only the lighter regions for highlight correction.
Controls the size of the area around each pixel that is used to determine whether a pixel is in the shadows or highlights. Moving the slider to the left specifies a smaller area, and moving it to the right specifies a larger area.
The Unsharp Mask sharpens an image by increasing contrast along the edges in an image. The Unsharp Mask does not detect edges in an image. Instead, it locates pixels that differ in value from surrounding pixels by the threshold you specify. It then increases the contrast of neighboring pixels by the amount you specify. So, for neighboring pixels the lighter pixels get lighter and the darker pixels get darker.
In addition, you specify the radius of the region to which each pixel is compared. The greater the radius, the larger the edge effects.
The degree of sharpening applied to an image is often a matter of personal choice. Keep in mind that oversharpening an image produces a halo effect around the edges.
The effects of the Unsharp Mask filter are more pronounced on‑screen than in high-resolution output. If your final destination is print, experiment to determine what settings work best for your image.
Choose Filter > Sharpen > Unsharp Mask. Make sure that the Preview option is selected.
Click the image in the preview window and hold down the mouse to see how the image looks without the sharpening. Drag in the preview window to see different parts of the image, and click + or – to zoom in or out.
Although there is a preview window in the Unsharp Mask dialog box, it’s best to move the dialog box so you can preview the effects of the filter in the document window.
The Radius value varies according to the subject matter, the size of the final reproduction, and the output method. For high-resolution images, a Radius value between 1 and 2 is recommended. A lower value sharpens only the edge pixels, whereas a higher value sharpens a wider band of pixels. This effect is much less noticeable in print than on‑screen, because a 2‑pixel radius represents a smaller area in a high-resolution printed image.
Drag the Threshold slider or enter a value to determine how different the sharpened pixels must be from the surrounding area before they are considered edge pixels and sharpened by the filter. For example, a threshold of 4 affects all pixels that have tonal values that differ by a value of 4 or more, on a scale of 0 to 255. So, if adjacent pixels have tonal values of 128 and 129, they are not affected. To avoid introducing noise or posterization (in images with flesh tones, for example), use an edge mask or try experimenting with Threshold values between 2 and 20. The default Threshold value (0) sharpens all pixels in the image.
If applying Unsharp Mask makes already bright colors appear overly saturated, choose Edit > Fade Unsharp Mask and choose Luminosity from the Mode menu.
You can sharpen parts of your image by using a mask or a selection to prevent sharpening in certain parts of your image. For example, you can use an edge mask with the Unsharp Mask filter on a portrait to sharpen the eyes, mouth, nose, and outline of the head, but not the texture of the skin.
Only the selection is sharpened, leaving the rest of the image untouched.
The Maximum, the Median, and the Gaussian Blur filters soften the edge mask so that the sharpening effects blend better in the final image. Although all three filters are used in this procedure, you can experiment using only one or two.
In the Layers panel, select the image layer. Make sure that the selection is still visible on the image.
To view your results, select the RGB channel in the Channels panel and deselect the selection in the image.
You can create an action to conveniently apply all the steps in the procedure.
Updated in Photoshop 21.1 (February 2020 release)
Add blur to an image to give the effect of a narrower depth of field so that some objects in the image stay in focus and others areas are blurred. You can use a simple selection to determine which areas are blurred, or you can provide a separate alpha channel depth map to describe exactly how you want the blur added.
The Lens Blur filter uses the depth map to determine the position of pixels in an image. With a depth map selected, you can also use the crosshair cursor to set the starting point of a given blur. You can use alpha channels and layer masks to create depth maps; black areas in an alpha channel are treated as though they’re at the front of the photo, and white areas are treated as if they’re far in the distance.
The way the blur appears depends on the iris shape you choose. The number of blades determines the iris shape. You can change blades of an iris by curving them (making them more circular) or rotating them. You can also reduce or magnify the preview by clicking the minus button or the plus button.
(Optional) Enable the graphics processor in Photoshop. Choose Edit (Windows) / Photoshop (macOS) > Preferences > Performance, the select Use Graphics Processor in the Preferences dialog.
Beginning with Photoshop 21.0 (November 2019 release), Lens Blur leverages your computer's graphics card to produce faster performance while applying the Lens Blur filters. In Photoshop 21.1 (February 2020 release), the Lens Blur algorithm has been further enhanced to achieve blurrier edges for foreground objects, brighter bokehs, and more realistic specular highlights.
Choose Filter > Blur > Lens Blur.
For Preview, choose one of the following options:
For Depth Map, choose a channel from the Source menu - Transparency or Layer Mask. Select None if you do not have a channel with depth map source.
Drag the Blur Focal Distance slider to set the depth at which pixels are in focus. For example, if you set focal distance to 100, pixels at 1 and at 255 are completely blurred, and pixels closer to 100 are blurred less.
If you click in the preview image, the Blur Focal Distance slider changes to reflect the clicked location and brings the depth of the clicked location into focus.
For a gradual blurring effect (none at the bottom to maximum at the top), create a new alpha channel and apply a gradient so that the channel is white at the top of the image and black at the bottom. Then select the Lens Blur filter and choose the alpha channel from the Source menu. To change the direction of the gradient, select the Invert check box.
To invert the selection or alpha channel you’re using as the depth map source, select Invert.
Choose an iris from the Shape menu. Drag the Blade Curvature slider to smoothen the edges of the iris, or drag the Rotation slider to rotate it.
To add more blur, drag the Radius slider.
For Specular Highlights, drag the Threshold slider to select a brightness cutoff; all pixels brighter than the cutoff value are treated as specular highlights.
To increase the brightness of the highlights, drag the Brightness slider.
To add noise to the image, use the Amount slider under the Noise section. Choose a noise distribution option - Uniform or Gaussian.
To add gray noise without affecting color, select Monochromatic.
Blurring removes film grain, noise, and fine texture from the original image. To make the image look realistic and unretouched, you can return some of the removed noise and texture to the image.
Click OK to apply the changes to your image.
The Blur tool softens hard edges or reduces detail in an image. The more you paint over an area with the tool, the blurrier it becomes.
The Sharpen tool increases contrast along edges to increase apparent sharpness. The more you paint over an area with the tool, the more sharpening increases.