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  1. Photoshop User Guide
  2. Introduction to Photoshop
    1. Dream it. Make it.
    2. What's new in Photoshop
    3. Edit your first photo
    4. Create documents
    5. Photoshop | Common Questions
    6. Photoshop system requirements
    7. Get to know Photoshop
  3. Photoshop and other Adobe products and services
    1. Work with Illustrator artwork in Photoshop
    2. Work with Photoshop files in InDesign
    3. Substance 3D Materials for Photoshop
    4. Use the Capture in-app extension in Photoshop
  4. Photoshop on the iPad (not available in mainland China)
    1. Photoshop on the iPad | Common questions
    2. Get to know the workspace
    3. System requirements | Photoshop on the iPad
    4. Create, open, and export documents
    5. Add photos
    6. Work with layers
    7. Draw and paint with brushes
    8. Make selections and add masks
    9. Retouch your composites
    10. Work with adjustment layers
    11. Adjust the tonality of your composite with Curves
    12. Apply transform operations
    13. Crop and rotate your composites
    14. Rotate, pan, zoom, and reset the canvas
    15. Work with Type layers
    16. Work with Photoshop and Lightroom
    17. Get missing fonts in Photoshop on the iPad
    18. Japanese Text in Photoshop on the iPad
    19. Manage app settings
    20. Touch shortcuts and gestures
    21. Keyboard shortcuts
    22. Edit your image size
    23. Livestream as you create in Photoshop on the iPad
    24. Correct imperfections with the Healing Brush
    25. Create brushes in Capture and use them in Photoshop on the iPad
    26. Work with Camera Raw files
    27. Create and work with Smart Objects
    28. Adjust exposure in your images with Dodge and Burn
    29. Auto adjustment commands in Photoshop on the iPad
    30. Smudge areas in your images with Photoshop on the iPad
    31. Saturate or desaturate your images using Sponge tool
    32. Content aware fill for iPad
  5. Photoshop on the web (not available in mainland China)
    1. Common questions
    2. System requirements
    3. Keyboard shortcuts
    4. Supported file types
    5. Introduction to the workspace
    6. Open and work with cloud documents
    7. Generative AI features
    8. Basic concepts of editing
    9. Quick Actions
    10. Work with layers
    11. Retouch images and remove imperfections
    12. Make quick selections
    13. Image improvements with Adjustment Layers
    14. Move, transform, and crop images
    15. Draw and paint
    16. Work with Type layers
    17. Work with anyone on the web
    18. Manage app settings
    19. Generate Image
    20. Generate Background
    21. Reference Image
  6. Photoshop (beta) (not available in mainland China)
    1. Get started with Creative Cloud Beta apps
    2. Photoshop (beta) on the desktop
    3. Generate image with descriptive text prompts
    4. Generate background with descriptive text prompts
  7. Generative AI (not available in mainland China) 
    1. Common questions on generative AI in Photoshop
    2. Generative Fill in Photoshop on the desktop
    3. Generative Expand in Photoshop on the desktop
    4. Generative Fill in Photoshop on the iPad
    5. Generative Expand in Photoshop on the iPad
    6. Generative AI features in Photoshop on the web
  8. Content authenticity (not available in mainland China)
    1. Content credentials in Photoshop
    2. Identity and provenance for NFTs
    3. Connect accounts for creative attribution
  9. Cloud documents (not available in mainland China)
    1. Photoshop cloud documents | Common questions
    2. Photoshop cloud documents | Workflow questions
    3. Manage and work with cloud documents in Photoshop
    4. Upgrade cloud storage for Photoshop
    5. Unable to create or save a cloud document
    6. Solve Photoshop cloud document errors
    7. Collect cloud document sync logs
    8. Invite others to edit your cloud documents
    9. Share files and comment in-app
  10. Workspace
    1. Workspace basics
    2. Preferences
    3. Learn faster with the Photoshop Discover Panel
    4. Create documents
    5. Place files
    6. Default keyboard shortcuts
    7. Customize keyboard shortcuts
    8. Tool galleries
    9. Performance preferences
    10. Use tools
    11. Presets
    12. Grid and guides
    13. Touch gestures
    14. Use the Touch Bar with Photoshop
    15. Touch capabilities and customizable workspaces
    16. Technology previews
    17. Metadata and notes
    18. Touch capabilities and customizable workspaces
    19. Place Photoshop images in other applications
    20. Rulers
    21. Show or hide non-printing Extras
    22. Specify columns for an image
    23. Undo and history
    24. Panels and menus
    25. Position elements with snapping
    26. Position with the Ruler tool
  11. Web, screen, and app design
    1. Photoshop for design
    2. Artboards
    3. Device Preview
    4. Copy CSS from layers
    5. Slice web pages
    6. HTML options for slices
    7. Modify slice layout
    8. Work with web graphics
    9. Create web photo galleries
  12. Image and color basics
    1. How to resize images
    2. Work with raster and vector images
    3. Image size and resolution
    4. Acquire images from cameras and scanners
    5. Create, open, and import images
    6. View images
    7. Invalid JPEG Marker error | Opening images
    8. Viewing multiple images
    9. Customize color pickers and swatches
    10. High dynamic range images
    11. Match colors in your image
    12. Convert between color modes
    13. Color modes
    14. Erase parts of an image
    15. Blending modes
    16. Choose colors
    17. Customize indexed color tables
    18. Image information
    19. Distort filters are unavailable
    20. About color
    21. Color and monochrome adjustments using channels
    22. Choose colors in the Color and Swatches panels
    23. Sample
    24. Color mode or Image mode
    25. Color cast
    26. Add a conditional mode change to an action
    27. Add swatches from HTML CSS and SVG
    28. Bit depth and preferences
  13. Layers
    1. Layer basics
    2. Nondestructive editing
    3. Create and manage layers and groups
    4. Select, group, and link layers
    5. Place images into frames
    6. Layer opacity and blending
    7. Mask layers
    8. Apply Smart Filters
    9. Layer comps
    10. Move, stack, and lock layers
    11. Mask layers with vector masks
    12. Manage layers and groups
    13. Layer effects and styles
    14. Edit layer masks
    15. Extract assets
    16. Reveal layers with clipping masks
    17. Generate image assets from layers
    18. Work with Smart Objects
    19. Blending modes
    20. Combine multiple images into a group portrait
    21. Combine images with Auto-Blend Layers
    22. Align and distribute layers
    23. Copy CSS from layers
    24. Load selections from a layer or layer mask's boundaries
    25. Knockout to reveal content from other layers
  14. Selections
    1. Get started with selections
    2. Make selections in your composite
    3. Select and Mask workspace
    4. Select with the marquee tools
    5. Select with the lasso tools
    6. Adjust pixel selections
    7. Move, copy, and delete selected pixels
    8. Create a temporary quick mask
    9. Select a color range in an image
    10. Convert between paths and selection borders
    11. Channel basics
    12. Save selections and alpha channel masks
    13. Select the image areas in focus
    14. Duplicate, split, and merge channels
    15. Channel calculations
  15. Image adjustments
    1. Replace object colors
    2. Perspective warp
    3. Reduce camera shake blurring
    4. Healing brush examples
    5. Export color lookup tables
    6. Adjust image sharpness and blur
    7. Understand color adjustments
    8. Apply a Brightness/Contrast adjustment
    9. Adjust shadow and highlight detail
    10. Levels adjustment
    11. Adjust hue and saturation
    12. Adjust vibrance
    13. Adjust color saturation in image areas
    14. Make quick tonal adjustments
    15. Apply special color effects to images
    16. Enhance your image with color balance adjustments
    17. High dynamic range images
    18. View histograms and pixel values
    19. Match colors in your image
    20. Crop and straighten photos
    21. Convert a color image to black and white
    22. Adjustment and fill layers
    23. Curves adjustment
    24. Blending modes
    25. Target images for press
    26. Adjust color and tone with Levels and Curves eyedroppers
    27. Adjust HDR exposure and toning
    28. Dodge or burn image areas
    29. Make selective color adjustments
  16. Adobe Camera Raw
    1. Camera Raw system requirements
    2. What's new in Camera Raw
    3. Introduction to Camera Raw
    4. Create panoramas
    5. Supported lenses
    6. Vignette, grain, and dehaze effects in Camera Raw
    7. Default keyboard shortcuts
    8. Automatic perspective correction in Camera Raw
    9. Radial Filter in Camera Raw
    10. Manage Camera Raw settings
    11. Open, process, and save images in Camera Raw
    12. Repair images with the Enhanced Spot Removal tool in Camera Raw
    13. Rotate, crop, and adjust images
    14. Adjust color rendering in Camera Raw
    15. Process versions in Camera Raw
    16. Make local adjustments in Camera Raw
  17. Image repair and restoration
    1. Remove objects from your photos with Content-Aware Fill
    2. Content-Aware Patch and Move
    3. Retouch and repair photos
    4. Correct image distortion and noise
    5. Basic troubleshooting steps to fix most issues
  18. Image enhancement and transformation
    1. Replace sky in your images
    2. Transform objects
    3. Adjust crop, rotation, and canvas size
    4. How to crop and straighten photos
    5. Create and edit panoramic images
    6. Warp images, shapes, and paths
    7. Vanishing Point
    8. Content-aware scaling
    9. Transform images, shapes, and paths
  19. Drawing and painting
    1. Paint symmetrical patterns
    2. Draw rectangles and modify stroke options
    3. About drawing
    4. Draw and edit shapes
    5. Painting tools
    6. Create and modify brushes
    7. Blending modes
    8. Add color to paths
    9. Edit paths
    10. Paint with the Mixer Brush
    11. Brush presets
    12. Gradients
    13. Gradient interpolation
    14. Fill and stroke selections, layers, and paths
    15. Draw with the Pen tools
    16. Create patterns
    17. Generate a pattern using the Pattern Maker
    18. Manage paths
    19. Manage pattern libraries and presets
    20. Draw or paint with a graphics tablet
    21. Create textured brushes
    22. Add dynamic elements to brushes
    23. Gradient
    24. Paint stylized strokes with the Art History Brush
    25. Paint with a pattern
    26. Sync presets on multiple devices
    27. Migrate presets, actions, and settings
  20. Text
    1. Add and edit the text
    2. Unified Text Engine
    3. Work with OpenType SVG fonts
    4. Format characters
    5. Format paragraphs
    6. How to create type effects
    7. Edit text
    8. Line and character spacing
    9. Arabic and Hebrew type
    10. Fonts
    11. Troubleshoot fonts
    12. Asian type
    13. Create type
  21. Filters and effects
    1. Use the Blur Gallery
    2. Filter basics
    3. Filter effects reference
    4. Add Lighting Effects
    5. Use the Adaptive Wide Angle filter
    6. Use the Oil Paint filter
    7. Use the Liquify filter
    8. Layer effects and styles
    9. Apply specific filters
    10. Smudge image areas
  22. Saving and exporting
    1. Save your files in Photoshop
    2. Export your files in Photoshop
    3. Supported file formats
    4. Save files in graphics formats
    5. Move designs between Photoshop and Illustrator
    6. Save and export video and animations
    7. Save PDF files
    8. Digimarc copyright protection
  23. Color Management
    1. Understanding color management
    2. Keeping colors consistent
    3. Color settings
    4. Duotones
    5. Work with color profiles
    6. Color-managing documents for online viewing
    7. Color-managing documents when printing
    8. Color-managing imported images
    9. Proofing colors
  24. Web, screen, and app design
    1. Photoshop for design
    2. Artboards
    3. Device Preview
    4. Copy CSS from layers
    5. Slice web pages
    6. HTML options for slices
    7. Modify slice layout
    8. Work with web graphics
    9. Create web photo galleries
  25. Video and animation
    1. Video editing in Photoshop
    2. Edit video and animation layers
    3. Video and animation overview
    4. Preview video and animations
    5. Paint frames in video layers
    6. Import video files and image sequences
    7. Create frame animations
    8. Creative Cloud 3D Animation (Preview)
    9. Create timeline animations
    10. Create images for video
  26. Printing
    1. Print 3D objects
    2. Print from Photoshop
    3. Print with color management
    4. Contact Sheets and PDF Presentations
    5. Print photos in a picture package layout
    6. Print spot colors
    7. Print images to a commercial printing press
    8. Improve color prints from Photoshop
    9. Troubleshoot printing problems | Photoshop
  27. Automation
    1. Creating actions
    2. Create data-driven graphics
    3. Scripting
    4. Process a batch of files
    5. Play and manage actions
    6. Add conditional actions
    7. About actions and the Actions panel
    8. Record tools in actions
    9. Add a conditional mode change to an action
    10. Photoshop UI toolkit for plug-ins and scripts
  28. Troubleshooting
    1. Fixed issues 
    2. Known issues
    3. Optimize Photoshop performance
    4. Basic troubleshooting
    5. Troubleshoot crash or freeze
    6. Troubleshoot program errors
    7. Troubleshoot scratch disk full errors
    8. Troubleshoot GPU and graphics driver issues
    9. Find missing tools
    10. Photoshop 3D | Common questions around discontinued features

You can set type attributes before you enter characters or reset them to change the appearance of selected characters in a type layer.

Before you can format individual characters, select them. You can select one character, a range of characters, or all characters in a type layer.


To quickly get up to speed with text-related Photoshop features, see Add words to your picture.

Select characters

  1. Do one of the following to select a type layer:

    • Select the Move tool  and double-click the type layer on the canvas.
    • Select the Horizontal Type tool or the Vertical Type tool . Select the type layer in the Layers panel, or click in the text flow to automatically select a type layer.
  2. Position the insertion point in the text, and do one of the following:
    • Drag to select one or more characters.
    • Click in the text, and then Shift-click to select a range of characters.
    • Choose Select > All to select all the characters in the layer.
    • Double-click a word to select it. Triple-click a line to select it. Quadruple-click a paragraph to select it. Quintuple-click anywhere in the text flow to select all characters in a bounding box.
    • To use the arrow keys to select characters, click in the text, and then hold down Shift and press the Right Arrow or Left Arrow key. To use the keys to select words, hold down Shift+Ctrl (Windows) or Shift+Command (Mac OS) and press the Right Arrow or Left Arrow key.
  3. To select all the characters in a layer without positioning the insertion point in the text flow, select the type layer in the Layers panel, and then double-click the layer’s type icon.

    Selecting and formatting characters in a type layer puts the Type tool into edit mode.

Character panel and dynamic shortcuts overview

The Character panel provides options for formatting characters. Some formatting options are also available from the options bar.

You can display the Character panel by doing one of the following:

  • Choose Window > Character, or click the Character panel tab if the panel is visible but not active.

  • With a type tool selected, click the Panel button  in the options bar.

    To set an option in the Character panel, choose a value from the pop‑up menu on the right side of the option. For options with numeric values, you can also use the up and down arrows to set the value, or you can edit the value directly in the text box. When you edit a value directly, press Enter or Return to apply a value, Shift+Enter or Shift+Return to apply a value and then highlight the value just edited, or Tab to apply a value and move to the next text box in the panel.


Select Show Asian Text Options in the Type preferences for the Set Tsume option to appear in the Character panel.

You can access additional commands and options in the Character panel menu. To use this menu, click the triangle in the upper right corner of the panel.

Dynamic shortcuts are keyboard shortcuts accessible from the Character panel menu only when you are entering point or paragraph type, when type is selected, or when the I‑beam is in text. Dynamic shortcuts are available for type options such as Faux Bold, Faux Italic, All Caps, Small Caps, Superscript, Subscript, Underline, and Strikethrough.

Specify type size and color

The type size determines how large the type appears in the image.

The default unit of measurement for type is points. One PostScript point is equal to 1/72 of an inch in a 72‑ppi image; however, you can switch between using the PostScript and traditional definitions of point size. You can change the default unit of measurement for type in the Units & Rulers area of the Preferences dialog box.

The type you enter is rendered in the current foreground color; however, you can change the color before or after you enter type. When editing existing type layers, you can change the color of individual, selected characters or of all type in a layer.

Choose a type size

  1. In the Character panel or options bar, enter or select a new value for Size  .

    To use an alternate unit of measurement, enter the unit (in, cm, mm, pt, px, or pica) after the value in the Font Size text box.


    To change the unit of measurement for type, choose Edit > Preferences > Units & Rulers (Windows) or Photoshop > Preferences > Units & Rulers (Mac OS), and choose a unit of measurement from the Type menu.

Define the point size unit

  1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Units & Rulers (Windows) or Photoshop > Preferences > Units & Rulers (Mac OS).
  2. For Point/Pica Size, select from the following options:

    PostScript (72 points/inch)

    Sets a unit size compatible for printing to a PostScript device.

    Traditional (72.27 points/inch)

    Uses 72.27 points per inch, as traditionally used in printing.

  3. Click OK.

Change the type color

  1. Do one of the following:
    • Click the Color selection box in the options bar or Character panel, and select a color using the Adobe Color Picker.
    • Use fill shortcuts. To fill with the foreground color, press Alt+Backspace (Windows) or Option+Delete (Mac OS); to fill with the background color, press Ctrl+Backspace (Windows) or Command+Delete (Mac OS).
    • Apply an overlay layer style to the type layer to apply a color, gradient, or pattern on top of the existing color. You can’t apply an overlay layer style selectively; it affects all characters in the type layer.
    • Click the foreground color selection box in the toolbox, and select a color using the Adobe Color Picker. Alternatively, click a color in the Color panel, or the Swatches panel. If you use this method to change the color of an existing type layer, you must first select characters on that layer.

Change the color of individual letters

  1. Select the Horizontal Type tool  .
  2. In the Layers panel, select the layer containing the type.
  3. In the document window, select the characters you want to change.
  4. In the options bar at the top of the work area, click the color swatch.
  5. In the Adobe Color Picker, locate the color range you want using the triangle sliders on the color spectrum bar, and then click the desired color in the color field. The color you select appears in the top half of the color swatch in the Adobe Color Picker. The original color remains in the bottom half.
  6. Click OK. The new color replaces the original color in the options bar and in the selected characters.

    You won’t see the new color in the characters until you deselect them or select something else.

Text treatments in the Character panel

Underline or strike through text

You can place a line under horizontal type, or to the left or right of vertical type. You can also place a line through horizontal or vertical type. The line is always the same color as the type color.

  1. Select the type you want to underline or strike through.
    • To underline horizontal type, click the Underline button  in the Character panel.
    • To apply an underline to the left or right of vertical type, choose Underline Left or Underline Right from the Character panel menu. You can apply an underline to the left or right, but not to both sides. A check mark indicates that an option is selected.

    The Underline Left and Underline Right options appear in the Character panel menu only when a type layer containing vertical type is selected. When working with vertical Asian type, you can add an underline on either side of the type line.

    • To apply a horizontal line through horizontal type or a vertical line through vertical type, click the Strikethrough button  in the Character panel. You can also choose Strikethrough from the Character panel menu.

Apply all caps or small caps

You can enter or format type as uppercase characters, either all caps or small caps. When you format text as small caps, Photoshop automatically uses the small‑cap characters designed as part of the font, if available. If the font does not include small caps, Photoshop generates faux small caps.

  1. Select the type you want to change.
  2. Do one of the following:
    • Click the All Caps button  or the Small Caps button  in the Character panel.
    • Choose All Caps or Small Caps from the Character panel menu. A check mark indicates that the option is selected.

Specify superscript or subscript characters

Superscript and subscript text (also called superior and inferior text) are reduced‑size text that is raised or lowered in relation to a font’s baseline. If the font does not include superscript or subscript characters, Photoshop generates faux superscript or subscript characters.

  1. Select the type you want to change.
  2. Do one of the following:
    • Click the Superscript button  or the Subscript button  in the Character panel.
    • Choose Superscript or Subscript from the Character panel menu. A check mark indicates that the option is selected.

Character styles

A character style includes character formatting attributes, and can be applied to characters, a paragraph, or even a range of paragraphs. You can create Character styles and then apply them later.

Choose Window > Character Styles to open the Character Styles panel. 

  • To apply a character style, select the text or text layer and click a character style.

Type styles are hierarchical: Manual overrides supersede any applied character styles, which in turn replace applied paragraph styles. This hierarchical approach lets you combine the efficiency of styles with the flexibility to customize your designs.

For a video overview, see Paragraph and Character Styles in Photoshop by Julieanne Kost.


Create a character style

  1. If you want to base a new style on the formatting of existing text, select that text.
  2. Choose New Character Style from the Character Styles panel menu.

Note:To create a style without first selecting text, click the Create New Style icon  at the bottom of the Character Styles panel. To edit a style without applying it to text, select an image layer, such as the Background.

Edit a character style

Double-click existing styles to edit them and update all associated text in the current document. Changing the style formatting updates all text to which the style has been applied with the new format. 

To edit a character style, do the following:

  1. Double-click the style in the Character Styles panel.
  2. To specify the formatting attributes, click a category (such as Basic Character Formats) on the left, and specify the attributes to add to the style.
  3. When you’ve finished specifying the formatting attributes, click OK.

Specifying default type styles | Creative Cloud only

Current character and paragraph styles can be saved as type defaults. These defaults are automatically applied to new Photoshop documents and can also be applied to existing documents that don't already contain type styles. For more information, see Paragraph styles.

To save the current character and paragraph styles as the type defaults, do any of the following:

  • Choose Type > Save Default Type Styles.
  • In the Character Styles or the Paragraph Styles panel, choose Save Default Type Styles from the panel menu.

To apply the default Character and Paragraph styles to a document:

  1. Do any of the following:

    • Choose Type > Load Default Type Styles.
    • In the Character Styles or the Paragraph Styles panel, choose Load Default Type Styles from the panel menu.
  2. If you are loading the default type styles into a document that already has an existing type style, the Import Paragraph Styles dialog box appears. You can choose whether or not to replace the existing type style with the default type style.