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Ambient Occlusion from Mesh | Substance 3D bakers

  1. Home
  2. Getting Started
    1. What is Baking?
    2. Software interface
      1. Substance 3D Painter
      2. Substance 3D Designer
      3. Substance 3D Automation Toolkit
    3. Availability per software
    4. Compatible 3D software
    5. Tutorials
  3. Bakers settings
    1. Common Parameters
    2. Ambient Occlusion
    3. Ambient Occlusion from Mesh
    4. Bent Normals from Mesh
    5. Color Map from Mesh
    6. Convert UV to SVG
    7. Curvature
    8. Curvature from Mesh
    9. Curvature from Mesh (deprecated)
    10. Height Map from Mesh
    11. Normal Map from Mesh
    12. Opacity Mask from Mesh
    13. Position
    14. Position map from Mesh
    15. Thickness Map from Mesh
    16. Transferred Texture from Mesh
    17. World Space Direction
    18. World Space Normals
  4. Guides
    1. Error and Warning Messages
    2. Performances and optimizations
    3. Triangulating before baking
  5. Features
    1. Geometry Cache
    2. GPU Raytracing
    3. Matching by Name
    4. Tangent Space
  6. Common questions
    1. How to export the baked maps?
    2. Is dithering applied to baked textures?
    3. Should I enable "Compute tangent space per fragment"?
    4. What are Assbin files?
    5. What is the bit depth of baked textures?
    6. What is the difference between the OpenGL and DirectX normal format?
    7. Why are there strange stretches in my textures after baking or exporting?
    8. Why is Matching by Name not working with Ambient Occlusion/Thickness?
    9. Why is my mesh fully black after baking?
  7. Common issues
    1. Aliasing on UV Seams
    2. Baker output is fully black or empty
    3. Baking failed with Color Map from Mesh
    4. Black shading cross are visible on the mesh surface
    5. Mesh parts bleed between each other
    6. Normal map has strange colorful gradients
    7. Normal texture looks faceted
    8. Seams are visible after baking a normal texture
    9. Seam visible on every face
    10. Texture baked outside of Substance software looks incorrect

Ambient Occlusion from Mesh

The Ambient Occlusion from mesh baker allows to bake an Ambient Occlusion texture from high poly meshes. It is slower than the base ambient occlusion baker but produce more accurate results.

Available in:

  • Substance Designer
  • Substance Automation Toolkit
  • Substance Painter


Secondary RaysAmount of occlusion rays. A high value will produce less noise but take longer to compute. Default is 64.
Min Occluder DistanceMinimum distance where the occlusion rays will hit the high poly geometry. Default is 0.00001.
Max Occluder DistanceMaximum distance where the occlusion rays will hit the high poly geometry. Default is 0.1.
Relative to Bounding Box

If enabled, units are relative to the bounding box of the object (1.0 being the diagonal length of the bounding box). If disabled, units used for the minimum and maximum occluder distances are the ones defined when exporting your mesh (meters, centimeters or whatever units the exported scene is).

Spread Angle Maximum spread angle of occlusion rays. Default is 180.

Angular distribution of occlusion rays. Defines how the rays are scattered inside a cone of the size of the spread angle.

Possible values:

  • Cosine (default): Realistic but can lead to white line in very thin occluded areas. More suited for shading and lighting.
  • Uniform: Useful to create linear gradients. More suited for layer masking and other filtering.
Ignore Backface

This parameters defines if occlusion rays ignore hits on a backface (if the high poly normal faces the opposite direction as the low poly from where the ray is fired). Most of the time this setting should be enabled to avoid artifacts.

Possible values:

  • Nevers (default): Backfaces are never ignored
  • Always: Backfaces are always ignored
  • By Mesh Name: Backfaces are ignored only for meshes that match the suffix keyword. See the common parameters.
Self Occlusion

Matching by name for occlusion rays. Indicates how the bakers should match low and high-poly geometry. It can be used to filter the baking process without the need to manually move apart (explode) meshes.

Possible values:

  • Always (default): Low-poly mesh is matched with every high-poly meshes.
  • By Mesh Name: Filter the meshes by their name to avoid matching with unwanted geometry.

To learn more about matching geometry see: Matching by Name.

Normal MapOptional path to a normal texture. Can be used to replace the internal computation of the baker.
World SpaceIf enabled, the normal texture is interpreted as a World Space normal instead of a Tangent Space.
Normal Orientation

Format of the Normal texture if in Tangent Space.

Possible values:

  • DirectX (default)
  • OpenGL

Defines how occlusion is attenuated by occluder distance.

Possible values:

  • None: no attenuation.
  • Linear (default) : progressive attenuation.
  • Smooth: soft attenuation.
Ground PlaneIf enabled, simulate a plane under the mesh bounding box on the XZ axis to collide with secondary rays. This simulate shadowing coming from an invisible floor plan.
Ground Plane OffsetAllows to shift the plan away from the mesh to reduce the intensity of the effect. The value is absolute and not relative to the mesh size.
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