Alpha channels and masks
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Color information in After Effects is contained in three channels: red (R), green (G), and blue (B). In addition, an image can include an invisible fourth channel, called an alpha channel, that contains transparency information. Sometimes, such an image is referred to as an RGBA image, indicating that it contains an alpha channel.
A. Separated color channels B. Alpha channel represented as a grayscale image C. Composite using all four channels with a background showing through transparent areas
Many file formats can include an alpha channel, including Adobe Photoshop, ElectricImage, FLV, TGA, TIFF, EPS, PDF, and Adobe Illustrator. AVI and QuickTime (saved at a bit depth of Millions Of Colors+), can also contain alpha channels, depending upon the codec (encoder) used to generate the images stored in these containers. For Adobe Illustrator EPS and PDF files, After Effects automatically converts empty areas to an alpha channel.
When specifying the color depth for an output image, the plus sign (as in Millions Of Colors+) denotes an alpha channel. Similarly, choosing to output to 32 bits per pixel implies an output depth of 8 bits per channel for each of four channels: RGBA.
Some programs can store multiple alpha channels in one image, but After Effects only interprets the fourth channel as an alpha channel.
The term alpha channel technically refers to the fourth (A) channel in an RGBA image file, regardless of whether that channel is used for communicating transparency information. However, since that fourth channel is used so often to communicate transparency information, the terms alpha and transparency have become nearly synonymous in common usage. It's important to remember, though, that this connection is arbitrary. Some formats may use other channels for transparency information, and other formats may use the fourth channel for something other than transparency information.
The Knoll Unmult plug-in can be used to create an alpha channel from the dark areas of a layer. This works well for a layer with a light effect (such as a lens flare or fire) that you want to composite on top of another layer. For information, see the Red Giant Software website.
When you view an alpha channel in the Composition panel, white indicates complete opacity, black indicates complete transparency, and shades of gray indicate partial transparency.
A matte is a layer (or any of its channels) that defines the transparent areas of that layer or another layer. White defines opaque areas, and black defines transparent areas. An alpha channel is often used as a matte, but you can use a matte other than the alpha channel if you have a channel or layer that defines the desired area of transparency better than the alpha channel does or in cases where the source image doesn’t include an alpha channel.
A mask in After Effects is a path that is used as a parameter to modify layer attributes, effects, and properties. The most common use of a mask is the modification of an alpha channel of a layer, which determines the layer's transparency at each pixel. Another common use of a mask is as a path to animate text. (See Creating and animating text on a path.)
For more information on paths in general, see About paths.
Closed-path masks can create transparent areas for a layer. Open paths cannot create transparent areas for a layer but are useful as parameters for an effect. Effects that can use an open or closed mask path as input include Stroke, Path Text, Audio Waveform, Audio Spectrum, and Vegas. Effects that can use closed masks (but not open masks) as input include Fill, Smear, Reshape, Particle Playground, and Inner/Outer Key.
A mask belongs to a specific layer. Each layer can contain multiple masks.
You can draw masks in common geometric shapes—including polygons, ellipses, and stars—with the shape tools, or you can use the Pen tool to draw an arbitrary path.
In most ways, drawing mask paths is the same as drawing shape paths on shape layers, though the editing and interpolation of mask paths have a few additional features. You can link a mask path to a shape path using expressions, which allows you to bring the benefits of masks into shape layers, and vice versa. See Creating shapes and masks and Editing and animating shape paths and masks.
The position of a mask in the stacking order in the Timeline panel affects how it interacts with other masks. You can drag a mask to different positions within the Masks property group in the Timeline panel.
The Mask Opacity property for a mask determines the influence a closed mask has on the alpha channel of the layer inside the mask area. A Mask Opacity value of 100% corresponds to an interior area that is opaque. The area outside the mask is always transparent. To invert what is considered inside and what is considered outside for a specific mask, select Invert next to the mask name in the Timeline panel.
Copy, cut, save, reuse, and delete masks
You can reuse masks in other layers and compositions, which is especially useful for Bezier masks you’ve spent a long time perfecting. Mask paths are stored inside a composition in a project file.
Copy, cut, duplicate, or paste a mask
When working with a mask path—rather than the entire mask, including its other properties—select the Mask Path property. This is especially important when transferring mask paths to shape paths, motion paths, and so on.
- To copy or cut selected masks to the clipboard, choose Edit > Copy or Edit > Cut.
- To duplicate selected masks, choose Edit > Duplicate.
- To paste a mask onto a layer, select the layer and then choose Edit > Paste. If a mask is selected, this operation replaces the selected mask.
Save a mask
In the Timeline panel for the composition containing the layer and mask you want to save, expand the layer and its mask properties.
Do one of the following:
- To save an animated mask, select the mask keyframes you want to save.
- To save a nonanimated mask, select the mask.
Copy the mask or keyframes, and paste the mask or keyframes to a new layer. The new layer can be a simple solid.
Create a project with compositions just for storing complex masks. When you want to use a mask from another project, import that project into your current project.
You can also save masks as animation presets. (See Animation presets.)
Reuse a mask
Open the composition containing the mask you want to reuse. If you saved the mask in another project, import the project and then open the composition containing the mask.
In the Timeline panel, expand the layer and mask properties for the mask.
Select the mask or keyframes.
Copy the mask or keyframes, and paste it to the layer to which you want to apply the mask.
- To delete one mask, select the mask in the Timeline panel and choose Delete.
- To delete all masks, select the layer containing the masks you want to remove and choose Layer > Masks > Remove All Masks.
Control mask path color
To help you identify and work with masks, the Composition and Layer panels outline a mask path with color, and the Timeline panel displays that same color next to the mask's name. By default, After Effects uses the color yellow for all masks. To make each mask more distinctive, you can manually change the color of a mask using the Timeline panel, or you can set After Effects to cycle through mask colors for new masks.
When the Use Contrasting Color For Mask Path preference (under Preferences > Appearance) is enabled, After Effects analyzes the colors near the point where you start drawing a mask. After Effects then chooses a label color that is different from the colors in that region. It also avoids the color of the last mask drawn.
Change mask path color
Select the mask in the Timeline panel.
Select the color swatch to the left of the mask name, pick a new color, and select OK.
Cycle through colors for mask paths
Choose Edit > Preferences > Appearance.
Select Cycle Mask Colors.
Blending modes for masks (mask modes) control how masks within a layer interact with one another. By default, all masks are set to Add, which combines the transparency values of any masks that overlap on the same layer. You can apply a mode to each mask, but you can’t animate the mode of a mask—that is, you can’t set keyframes or expressions for a mask mode property to make it change over time.
You choose a mask mode for a mask from the menu next to the mask name in the Timeline panel.
The first mask that you create interacts with the alpha channel of the layer. If that channel doesn’t define the entire image as opaque, then the mask interacts with the layer frame. Each additional mask you create interacts with masks above it in the stacking order in the Timeline panel. The results of mask modes vary depending on the modes set for the masks higher in the stacking order. Mask modes only operate between masks on the same layer.
You can create complex compound masks with multiple transparent areas using mask modes. For example, you can set a mask mode that combines two masks and sets the opaque area to the areas where the two masks intersect.
Original set of shapes.
The mask has no direct influence on the alpha channel of the layer. This option is useful when you are only using the path of the mask for an effect such as Stroke or Fill, or if you are using the mask path as the basis for a shape path.
The mask is added to the masks above it in the stacking order. The influence of the mask is cumulative with the masks above it.
The influence of the mask is subtracted from the masks above it. This option is useful when you want to create the appearance of a hole in the center of another mask.
The mask is added to the masks above it in the stacking order. In areas where the mask overlaps the masks above it, the influence of the mask is cumulative with the masks above it. In areas where the mask does not overlap with the masks above it, the result is complete opacity.
The mask is added to the masks above it in the stacking order. Where multiple masks intersect, the highest transparency value is used.
The mask is added to the masks above it in the stacking order. Where multiple masks intersect, the lowest transparency value is used.
The mask is added to the masks above it in the stacking order. In areas where the mask does not overlap the masks above it, the mask operates as it would alone on the layer. In areas where the mask overlaps the masks above it, the influence of the mask is subtracted from the masks above it.
Use the following keyboard shortcuts to change the mode of a closed mask while you are drawing or modifying it:
- When you draw a new mask with the Shape tools such as Rectangle tool, and Ellipse tool, you can press these keyboard shortcuts along with the mouse.
- When you draw a new mask with the Pen tool, you can only press these keyboard shortcuts when you close the mask. To place the pointer over the closing vertex (usually the first vertex), click and hold the mouse button to close the mask, then press the mask mode keyboard shortcut before releasing the mouse button. Open masks do not have a mode. These keyboard shortcuts do not work when drawing open masks with the Pen tool.
- When you modify a closed mask, you can press these keyboard shortcuts at any time while you hold down the mouse button.
Expand or contract the edges of a mask
To expand or contract the area influenced by a mask, use the Mask Expansion property.
Mask expansion affects the alpha channel but not the underlying mask path; the mask expansion is essentially an offset that determines how far, in pixels, from the mask path the influence of the mask on the alpha channel extends.
You can scrub the Mask expansion values up to 32,000, and scrub down to -32,000. Earlier versions of After Effects allow scrubbing these values to 1,000 and any value beyond 1000 was manually entered.
In the Timeline panel, expand the Mask properties of the layer you want to adjust.
Drag the underlined value for Mask Expansion.
Soften (feather) the edges of a mask
Feathering softens the edges of a mask by fading it from more transparent to less transparent over a user-defined distance. Using the Mask Feather property, you make mask edges hard-edged or soft-edged (feathered). By default, the feather width straddles the mask edge, half inside, and half outside. For example, if you set the feather width to 25, the feathering extends 12.5 pixels inside the mask edge and 12.5 pixels outside it.
You can scrub Mask Feather values up to 32,000 using the slider.
A. Masked layer with 5-pixel feather B. Masked layer with 40-pixel feather C. Result with 5-pixel feather D. Result with 40-pixel feather
You can also extend or contract the mask edges using the Mask Expansion property to control where the mask feathering appears. (See Expand or contract the edges of a mask.)
Mask feathering takes place only within the dimensions of the layer. Therefore, the path of a feathered mask should always be slightly smaller than the layer area and should never move to the very edge of the layer. If a mask feather extends beyond the layer area, the feathered edge ends abruptly.
To display the Mask Feather property for selected layers, press F.
(Optional) To constrain horizontal and vertical feather amounts to change proportionally, select the Constrain Proportions switch next to the Mask Feather property.
Modify the Mask Feather property as you would any other property—by dragging the underlined value or clicking the underlined value and entering an amount in the text input field.
Because the mask feather causes the opacity values to vary according to a Gaussian distribution, the area influenced by the feather actually extends beyond the number of pixels specified. The magnitude of the feather’s influence beyond the specified feather range is very small. This gradual, Gaussian fall-off appears more natural than a linear fall-off.
Variable-width mask feathering
Earlier versions of After Effects enabled you to add a feathered edge to a closed mask, but the width (extent) of the feather was the same around the mask. A new Mask Feather tool (available in the same tool menu as the Pen tool) has been added to let you define points along a closed mask that should have varying widths.
To create a feather point:
A selected feather point has a small black dot at its handle.
Feather points define both the outer feather boundary and inner feather boundary. If no feather extent handles are inside the mask, the inner feather boundary is the mask path. The mask feather extends from the inner to the outer feather boundary.
To select multiple feather points:
Using the Selection or Mask Feather tool, Shift-click the feather points' extent handles.
To toggle the selection of a feather point:
Shift-click the feather point.
To move a feather point, do either of the following:
- Using the Selection or Mask Feather tool, drag the feather extent handle.
You can move multiple selected feather points in unison by dragging one of them and scale multiple feather extents by dragging one of the feather extent handles.
You can "sweep" feather points around corner points on a mask.
- With the Mask Feather tool active, press the Left or Right Arrow to move the feather along the path or the Up or Down Arrow to lengthen or shorten the feather's width.
By holding down the Shift key, you can move multiple selected feather points and move longer distances/widths.
To snap a feather point to the mask path:
Drag the feather extent handle across the mask path. It will stop at the mask path.
To control the falloff of the feather:
Choose Layer > Mask > Feather Falloff, and then select one of the following:
- Smooth (default)
To adjust the tension (smoothness or curvature) of a feather boundary through a feather point:
Hold down the Alt (Windows) or Option (macOS) key while dragging from a feather extent handle to adjust the tension. The Info panel shows the current tension for a handle.
To set Hold interpolation for a feather point (for constant feather radius up to the next feather point):
Hold down the Alt (Windows) or Option (macOS) key while dragging from a feather extent handle to adjust the tension. The Info panel shows the current tension for a handle.
Enable the Hold option from the context menu above the feather point. The feather point handle changes to be pointy in the direction of constant radius.
To quickly create a feathered edge for a specific mask segment:
Hold down the Shift key as you select the mask segment (between vertices, not above them). The pointer changes to indicate that you are in this mode. Drag from the segment to adjust the extent. Note the following behavior:
- If just two mask vertices are selected, the feathered edge is the contiguous segments between them.
- If both vertices of the clicked segment are selected (that is, the segment is selected), the feathered edge expands to include contiguous selected segments.
- If all or no vertices on the mask are selected, or if the first two conditions don't apply, the feathered edge is only the clicked segment.
To delete a feather point:
Select a feather extent handle using the Selection or Mask Feather tool, then press Delete. You can delete multiple selected feather points.
The pointer changes to selection mode instead of delete vertex mode when over a mask vertex.
Tips for variable-width mask feathering (Mask Feather tool)
- Temporarily switch between Pen and Mask Feather tools by holding down the 'G' shortcut. You can turn off this behavior in Edit > Preferences > General (Windows), or After Effects > Preferences > General (macOS).
- View information about the number of feather points on a mask, a feather extent's length, position, and tension, and feather falloff setting in the Info panel.
- Hide the feather boundaries for a specific view by deselecting the Mask Feather Boundaries option in the View Options dialog box. You can still interact with the boundaries (for example, adding new feather points) where they would have been drawn.
- Control feather point counts across Mask Path keyframes by using the Preserve Constant Vertex and Feather Count when Editing Masks option in General preferences.
- Change the value of a feather point's tension, radius, and corner angle from a dialog box by using the commands in the context menu for a feather point. Hold down the Ctrl (Windows) or Command (macOS) key when hovering over a mask vertex to switch to the Selection tool behavior.
- Hold down the Ctrl (Windows) or Command (macOS) key when hovering over a tangent handle to switch to the Convert Vertex tool.
Any layer in your composition, no matter where it sits in the layer stack, can be used as a Track Matte source for any other layer. You can even have multiple layers all reference a single layer for their matte. You can also use the matte layer’s Alpha or Luma channels and invert them if necessary.
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