Illustrator provides a variety of options for formatting Asian characters. For example, you can set Asian Open Type font attributes, use tate-chu-yoko, aki, warichu, mojisoroe, mojikumi, kinsoku, burasagari, and kurikaeshi moji shori. In addition, you can combine Asian and roman fonts and create composite fonts.

Display Asian type options

By default, Illustrator hides Asian type options in the Character panel, Paragraph panel, OpenType panel, and Type menu.

  1. Choose Edit > Preferences > Type (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Type (Mac OS).
  2. Select Show Asian Options, and click OK.

    You can also control how font names are displayed (in English or in the native language) by selecting or deselecting Show Font Names in English.

Note:

Your operating system must support the languages in which you wish to work. Consult your system software manufacturer for more information.

Set Asian OpenType font attributes

Asian OpenType fonts may include a number of features that aren’t available in current PostScript and TrueType fonts. In addition, Asian OpenType fonts provide alternate glyphs for many characters.

  1. Select the characters or type objects to which you want to apply the setting. If you don’t select any text, the setting applies to new text you create.
  2. Make sure that an OpenType font is selected.

    Look in the Type > Font menu; OpenType fonts display the  icon.

  3. In the OpenType panel, set any of the following options:

    Proportional Metrics

    Kerning is according to the proportional metrics of the font.

    H or V Style

    Switches hiragana fonts, which have different glyphs for horizontal and vertical such as contracted sounds, double consonants, and phonetic indexes.

    Roman Italics

    Changes half-width alphanumerics to italics.

Replace Asian characters with a different glyph form

  1. Select the characters you want to replace.
  2. Choose an option from the Glyphs panel menu. If you don’t see the following options, select Show Asian Options in the Type preferences. If an option is dimmed, the glyph form is not available for the current font:

    Traditional Forms

    Replaces the selected characters with traditional forms.

    Expert Forms

    Replaces the selected characters with their expert forms.

    JIS 04 Forms

    Replaces the selected characters with JIS 04 forms.

    JIS 90 Forms

    Replaces the selected characters with JIS 90 forms.

    JIS 78 Forms

    Replaces the selected characters with JIS 78 forms.

    JIS 83 Forms

    Replaces the selected characters with JIS 83 forms.

    Monospaced Half-Width Forms

    Changes the glyphs of the selected Latin characters to monospace hankaku (half width).

    Monospaced Third-Width Forms

    Changes the glyphs of the selected Latin characters to monospace third width.

    Monospaced Quarter-Width Forms

    Changes the glyphs of the selected Latin characters to monospace quarter width.

    Tip: To revert an alternate glyph to its default form, select it and choose Revert To Default Forms from the Glyphs panel menu. You cannot use this method to revert alternate glyphs that were applied using a character style.

Specify how leading is measured in Asian type

  1. Select the paragraphs you want to adjust.
  2. Choose a leading option from the Paragraph panel menu.

    bottom-to-bottom leadingtop-to-top leadingleading in Asian typeAsian type:leading inTop-to-top Leading

    Measures the spacing between lines of type from the top of one line to the top of the next line. When you use top‑to‑top leading, the first line of type in a paragraph is aligned flush with the top of the bounding box.

    Bottom-to-bottom Leading

    For horizontal type, measures the space between lines of type from the type baseline. When you use bottom-to-bottom leading, space appears between the first line of type and the bounding box. A check mark indicates which option is selected.

    note: The leading option you choose does not affect the amount of leading between lines, only how the leading is measured.

Rotate half-width characters in vertical text

The direction of half-width characters, such as roman text or numbers, changes in vertical text. By default, half-width characters are rotated individually.

If you don’t want half-width characters to rotate, deselect Standard Vertical Roman Alignment from the Character panel menu.

Roman text before and after rotation
Roman text before and after rotation

Use tate-chu-yoko

Tate-chu-yoko (also called kumimoji and renmoji) is a block of horizontal type laid out within vertical type lines. Using tate-chu-yoko makes it easier to read half-width characters such as numbers, dates, and short foreign words in vertical text.

Numerals without tate-chu-yoko (left) compared to numerals rotated with tate-chu-yoko (right)
Numerals without tate-chu-yoko (left) compared to numerals rotated with tate-chu-yoko (right)

  1. Select characters and choose Tate-chu-yoko from the Character panel menu. (Select it again to turn Tate-chu-yoko off.)
  2. Select any of the following tate-chu-yoko settings from the Character panel menu:

    Up/Down

    Specifies a positive value to move the text up and a negative value to move it down.

    Left/Right

    Specifies a positive value to move the text to the right and a negative value to move it to the left.

    Tip: Use tsume or tracking in the Character panel to adjust the character spacing for tate-chu-yoko.

    note: If the Tate-chu-yoko option isn’t showing, you need to select Show Asian Options in the Type preferences.

Use aki

Aki is the white space before or after a character. Usually, fixed spacing is applied between the characters based on the mojikumi setting for a paragraph. You can change the mojikumi setting for special characters using the Insert Aki options in the Character panel. For example, to add a space before an opening parenthesis, use the Insert Aki (Left) option.

Parenthesis without aki (left) compared to parenthesis with aki (right)
Parenthesis without aki (left) compared to parenthesis with aki (right)

  1. Select the characters you want to adjust with the Type tool, and do any of the following in the Character panel:
    • To add aki before or after a character, choose the amount of aki you want to add from the Insert Aki (Left)  or Insert Aki (Right)  menu in the Character panel. For example, if you specify 2bu, half a full-width space is added, and if you specify 4bu, a quarter of a full-width space is added.

    • To compress the aki between characters, specify a percentage for Tsume . The higher the percentage, the narrower the aki between characters.

    Note:

    If you don’t see the Insert Aki or Tsume options, select Show Asian Options in the Type preferences.

    Character without tsume (left) compared to character with tsume (right)
    Character without tsume (left) compared to character with tsume (right)

Use warichu

The Warichu option in the Character panel decreases the typeface size of selected text to a percentage of the original and stacks the type—horizontally or vertically, according to the orientation—on multiple lines.

Vertical and horizontal text with warichu
Vertical and horizontal text with warichu

  1. Select text and choose Warichu from the Character panel menu. (Select it again to turn it off.)
  2. Select any of the following warichu settings from the Character panel menu:

    Lines

    Specifies how many lines of text will appear as warichu characters.

    Line Gap

    Determines the distance between the lines of warichu characters.

    Scale

    Sets the size of warichu characters as a percentage of the size of the parent text.

    Alignment

    Specifies the alignment of warichu characters. For example, in a vertical frame grid, selecting Top will align the beginning of the warichu characters at the top of the frame. The alignment proxy shows how the warichu text appears relative to the parent text.

    Line Breaking Options

    Specifies the minimum number of characters required before and after the line breaks to start a new line.

Align Asian characters with mojisoroe

Mojisoroe is the alignment of characters in Asian type. When a line of text contains different sizes of characters, you can specify how to align text to the largest characters in the line: to the top, center, or bottom of the em box (right, center, and left for vertical frames), to the roman baseline, or to the top or bottom of the ICF box (right or left for vertical frames). ICF (Ideographic Character Space) is the average height and width used by the font designer to design the ideographic characters which comprise a font.

Character alignment options
Character alignment options

A. Small characters aligned to the bottom B. Small characters aligned to the center C. Small characters aligned to the top 
  1. In the Character panel menu, choose an option from the Character Alignment submenu:

    Roman Baseline

    Aligns the small characters in a line to the large character.

    Em box Top/Right, Em box Center, or Em box Bottom/Left

    Aligns the small characters in a line to the specified position of the large character’s em box. In vertical text frames, Em box Top/Right aligns the text to the right of the em box, and Em box Bottom/Left aligns the text to the left of the em box.

    ICF Top/Right and ICF Bottom/Left

    Aligns the small characters in a line to the ICF specified by the large characters. In vertical text frames, ICF Top/Right aligns the text to the right of the ICF, and ICF Bottom/Left aligns the text to the left of the ICF.

Use mojikumi

Mojikumi specifies Japanese text composition for spacing of Japanese characters, roman characters, punctuation, special characters, line start, line end, and numbers. You can also specify paragraph indents.

The existing character spacing rules in Illustrator follow the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) specification, JISx4051‑1995. You can select from the predefined mojikumi sets provided by Illustrator.

Furthermore, you can create specific mojikumi sets. In a new mojikumi set, you can edit the settings for spacing that you use a lot, such as the spacing between a period and subsequent opening parenthesis. For example, you might create an interview format in which you want to have an em dash before a question, and answers enclosed in parentheses.

Select a mojikumi set for a paragraph

  1. In the Character panel, set Kerning to zero.
  2. In the Paragraph panel, choose an option from the Mojikumi Set pop‑up menu: 

    None Turns off the use of mojikumi.

    YakumonoHankaku mojikumi setYakumonoHankaku Uses half-width spacing for punctuation.

    GyoumatsuYakumonoHankaku mojikumi setGyoumatsuYakumonoHankaku Uses full-width spacing for most characters except the last character in the line.

    YakumonoHankaku (left) and GyoumatsuYakumonoHankaku (right)
    YakumonoHankaku (left) and GyoumatsuYakumonoHankaku (right)

    GyoumatsuYakumonoZenkaku mojikumi setGyoumatsuYakumonoZenkaku Uses full-width spacing for most characters and the last character in the line.

    YakumonoZenkaku mojikumi setYakumonoZenkaku Uses full-width spacing for punctuation.

    GyoumatsuYakumonoZenkaku (left) and YakumonoZenkaku (right)
    GyoumatsuYakumonoZenkaku (left) and YakumonoZenkaku (right)

Create a mojikumi set

  1. Do one of the following:
    • Choose Type > Mojikumi Settings.

    • Choose Mojikumi Settings from the Mojikumi Set pop‑up menu in the Paragraph panel.

  2. Click New in the Mojikumi Settings dialog box.
  3. Enter a name for the new mojikumi set, specify the existing set on which the new set will be based, and click OK.
  4. Choose Use Percentage (%) or Bu from the Units pop‑up menu.
  5. Specify Desired, Minimum, and Maximum values for each option. The Minimum value is used to compress lines for kinsoku (specify a value less than the Desired value). The Maximum value is used to spread lines for fully justified text (specify a value greater than the Desired value).

    Note:

    Depending on the character type, you can specify the same values for Desired, Minimum, and Maximum if you don’t want to change the spacing.

  6. Click Save or OK to save the settings. Click Cancel if you don’t want to save the settings.

    Note:

    When you compose Japanese text with a lot of half-width spaces or roman parentheses, problems relating to text composition increase. We recommend that you avoid using roman parentheses, and use full-width parentheses for Japanese composition. Only use roman parentheses when using relatively long English sentences in Japanese text, or when a more serious problem results if you don’t use roman parentheses.

Work with mojikumi sets

  1. In the Mojikumi Settings dialog box, do any of the following:
    • To export a set, click Export, select a location for the file, type a filename, and click Save. Illustrator saves the file in MJK format.

    • To import a set, click Import, select an MJK file, and click Open.

    • To delete a set, choose it from the Mojikumi pop‑up menu and then click Delete. All the text to which the mojikumi set was applied will return to the default settings.

    Note:

    You cannot delete predefined mojikumi sets.

Use kinsoku

Kinsoku specifies line breaks for Japanese text. Characters that cannot be placed at the beginning or end of a line are known as kinsoku characters. Illustrator has hard kinsoku sets and soft kinsoku sets and Photoshop has weak and maximum sets. Soft or weak kinsoku sets omit long vowel symbols and small hiragana characters. You can use these existing sets, or add or delete kinsoku characters to create new sets.

You can also define hanging characters for hanging Japanese punctuation and define characters that cannot be split when a line is exceeded.

You can specify whether to push in or push out text so that kinsoku characters are not placed inappropriately.

Select kinsoku settings for a paragraph

  1. In the Paragraph panel, choose an option from the Kinsoku Set pop‑up menu:

    None

    Turns off the use of kinsoku shori.

    Soft or Hard

    Prevents selected characters from beginning or ending a line.

Create a kinsoku set

  1. Do one of the following:
    • Choose Type > Kinsoku Shori Settings.

    • Choose Kinsoku Settings from the Kinsoku Set pop‑up menu in the Paragraph panel.

  2. In the Kinsoku Shori Settings dialog box, click New Set.
  3. Enter a name for the kinsoku set, specify the existing set on which the new set will be based, and click OK.
  4. To add a character to a field, select the field, and do one of the following:
    • Enter a character in the Input box, and click Add.

    • Specify the code system (Shift JIS, JIS, Kuten, or Unicode), enter the code, and click Add.

  5. To delete a character in a field, select the character and click Delete. Alternatively, press Backspace (Windows) or Delete (Mac OS).
  6. To check the character code currently selected, select Shift JIS, JIS, Kuten, or Unicode, and display the code system.
  7. Click Save or OK to save the settings. Click Cancel if you don’t want to save the settings.

Use kinsoku sets

  1. In the Kinsoku Shori Settings dialog box, do any of the following:
    • To export a kinsoku set, click Export. Select a location for the file, enter a filename, and click Save.

      Illustrator saves the file in KSK format.

    • To import a kinsoku set, click Import. Select a KSK file, and click Open.

    • To delete a kinsoku set, choose the kinsoku set you want to delete from the pop‑up menu. Then click Delete Set.

      note: You cannot delete predefined kinsoku settings.

Specify a kinsoku line-breaking option

Kinsoku shori or mojikumi must be selected to use the following line-breaking options.

  1. From the Paragraph panel menu, choose Kinsoku Shori Type and then choose one of the following methods:

    Push In First

    Moves characters up to the previous line to prevent prohibited characters from ending or beginning a line.

    Push Out First

    Moves characters down to the next line to prevent prohibited characters from ending or beginning a line.

    Push Out Only

    Always moves characters down to the next line to prevent prohibited characters from ending or beginning a line. A push-in is not attempted.

    A check mark indicates which method is selected.

Set bunri-kinshi on and off

When Bunri-kinshi is selected, the characters specified in the Bunri-Kinshi section of the Kinsoku Shori Settings dialog box will not be split.

  1. In the Paragraph panel, choose Bunri-kinshi from the panel menu.

    Note:

    This option is only available when kinsoku shori is on.

Specify a burasagari option

Burasagari lets single‑byte periods, double‑byte periods, single‑byte commas, and double‑byte commas fall outside the paragraph bounding box.

  1. In the Paragraph panel, choose Burasagari from the panel menu.
  2. Choose an option from the submenu:

    None

    Turns off hanging punctuation.

    Regular

    Turns on hanging punctuation without forcing ragged lines to the bounding box edge.

    Force

    Forces punctuation outside the bounding box by spreading lines that end within the bounding box and end with one of the hanging characters.

    note: The Burasagari options are not available when Kinsoku Shori is set to None.

Use kurikaeshi moji shori

You can control how repeated characters in Japanese text are handled using the Kurikaeshi Moji Shori option in the Paragraph panel. By default, a repeat character mark is substituted for the second character when two identical characters follow one after the other in a body of text. When this option is selected, both characters are displayed if they are separated by a line break.

GyoumatsuYakumonoZenkaku (left) and YakumonoZenkaku (right)
Text without Kurikaeshi Moji Shori option (left) compared to text with Kurikaeshi Moji Shori option (right)

  1. Using any type tool, select a paragraph of text to which you want to apply repeated character processing. If no text exists, the setting applies to new text typed.
  2. In the Paragraph panel, select Kurikaeshi Moji Shori from the panel menu.

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