Evaluates a Boolean conditional dynamic expression. Depending on whether the expression is yes or no, dynamically evaluates one of two string expressions and returns the result. This function is convenient for incorporating a cfif tag in-line in HTML.For general conditional processing, see cfif. For error handling, see cftry. For more information, see the Developing ColdFusion Applications.


If result is yes, returns the value of Evaluate(string_expression1); otherwise, returns the value of Evaluate(string_expression2).


Decision functionsDynamic evaluation functions

Function syntax

IIf(condition, string_expression1, string_expression2)

See also

DE, Evaluate





An expression that can be evaluated as a Boolean.


A string or a variable that contains one. Expression to evaluate and return if condition is yes.


A string or a variable that contains one. Expression to evaluate and return if condition is no.


The IIf function is a shortcut for the following construct:

<cfif condition> 
<cfset result = Evaluate(string_expression1)> 
<cfset result = Evaluate(string_expression2)> 

The expressions string_expression1 and string_expression2 must be string expressions, so that they are not evaluated immediately as the parameters of IIf. For example:

IIf(y is 0, DE("Error"), x/y)

If y = 0, this generates an error, because the third expression is the value of x/0 (invalid expression).ColdFusion evaluates string_expression1 and string_expression2. To return the string itself, use the DE function.

Note: If you use number signs (#) in string_expression1 or string_expression2, ColdFusion evaluates the part of the expression in number signs first. If you misuse the number signs, you can cause unexpected results from the IIf function. For example, if you use number signs around the whole expression in string_expression1, and if there is an undefined variable in string_expression1, the function might fail, with the error "Error Resolving Parameter."

If a variable is undefined, ColdFusion throws an error when it processes this function. The following example shows this problem:

#IIf(IsDefined("Form.Deliver"), DE(Form.Deliver), DE("no"))#

This returns "Error resolving parameter FORM.DELIVER".To avoid this problem, use the DE and Evaluate functions in code such as the following:

#IIf(IsDefined("Form.Deliver"), Evaluate(DE("Form.Deliver")), DE("no"))#

This returns "no"; ColdFusion does not throw an error.In the following example, LocalVar is undefined; however, if you omit number signs around LocalVar, the code works properly:

#IIf(IsDefined("LocalVar"), "LocalVar", 
DE("The variable is not defined."))# 

The output is:

Note: The variable is not defined.

The number signs around LocalVar in the following code cause it to fail with the error message 'Error Resolving Parameter', because ColdFusion never evaluates the original condition IsDefined("LocalVar").Here is another example:

#IIf(IsDefined("LocalVar"), DE("#LocalVar#"), DE("The variable is not defined."))# 

The error message would be as follows:

Error resolving parameter LOCALVAR

The DE function has no effect on the evaluation of LocalVar, because the number signs cause it to be evaluated immediately.


    time1 = CreateDateTime(12,11,10,13,2,30)
    result = IIf( Hour(time1) > 12, DE("it is afternoon or evening"), DE("it is morning")) 


it is afternoon or evening

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